Ingeborg Bachmann was born in Klagenfurt, the capital of the Austrian state of Carinthia. At the age of 12, she witnessed the march of Nazi troops into her town as part of the annexation of Austria (Anschluss) by Germany. Her first short story, Die Fähre (The Ferry), was published in the weekly Kärtner Illustrierte. She studied philosophy, psychology, and law at the universities of Innsbruck, Graz, and Vienna, where she completed her doctorate in 1949 with a dissertation on Martin Heidegger. She went to work as a scriptwriter and editor for the radio station Rot-Weisz-Rot, which also performed her plays. Her first collection of poetry, Die gestundete Zeit (1953), was awarded the Group 47 Prize. Bachmann was a member of the Gruppe 47 literary circle, along with Paul Celan, Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, and others. After she met German composer Hans Werner Henze, they collaborated on her radio play Die Zikaden (The Cicadas, 1954), which was produced with Henze's music. He also set several of her poems to music. She moved to Italy and lived with Henze for several years, and wrote the librettos for his operas Der Prinz von Homburg (1960) and Der junge Lord (1965). She also spent some time in the USA as a visiting scholar at Harvard University. While in Italy in 1954-1955, she wrote political columns under the pseudonym Ruth Keller for the Westdeutschen Allgemeinen Zeitung. In 1958, she met Swiss writer Max Frisch in Paris; their relationship lasted until the early 1960s. At age 33, she was appointed to the newly-created position of chair of poetics at the University of Frankfurt. From 1962, Bachmann lived in Munich, Berlin, Zürich and Rome, writing and working for various social and political causes. For her semi-autobiographical volume of stories, Das dreißigste Jahr, Bachmann received the 1964 Berlin Critics Prize. In the same year, she also received the prestigious Georg Büchner Prize and was named to the West Berlin Academy of Arts. Four years later, she was awarded the Austrian National Medal. In 1973, she gave a series of readings in Poland and visited the concentration camps at Auschwitz and Birkenau. She died in October of that year, age 47, after being badly burned in a fire in her Rome apartment. Bachmann is today considered a leading voice in post-war German literature. During her lifetime, she was known primarily as a poet, but later became more famous for her prose. She did not finish her novel cycle, Todesarten (Ways of Death), which she had began to work on in Rome. Two projected novels, The Franza Case and Requiem for Fanny Goldmann, were published as posthumous fragments.