Josephine Young Case was born in Lexington, Massachusetts, the daughter of Owen D. Young, chairman of the General Electric Company and founder of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and his wife Josephine Edmonds Young. She was educated at the Brearley School in New York and graduated from Bryn Mawr College. In 1931, she married Everett Needham Case and received an M.A. in American literature from Radcliffe College. Her first book of poetry, At Midnight on the 31st of March, was published in 1938. For 20 years, Mrs. Case taught a literature course at Colgate University, where her husband became president. She also published an historical novel, Written in Sand (1945); another collection of poetry, Freedom's Farm (1946); and a biography of her father, Owen D. Young and American Enterprise (1982). She became the first female director of RCA in 1961. She also served on the boards of Bryn Mawr, the National Merit Scholarship Corporation, the Girl Scouts of America, and the Saratoga Performing Arts Center.
A trustee of Skidmore College for many years, Mrs. Case became chairwoman of the board in 1960.