His studies were interrupted by the outbreak of World War II; he served in the Royal Dragoons and was present at the Battle of El Alamein. He also took part in the Normandy invasions of 1944. He met his Danish wife Grethe while on active service, and they married in 1947. After the war, he became a primary school teacher before completing his degree in economics and going on to postgraduate study. He lectured at the University of Strathclyde and became an advisor to George Thomas, Viscount Tonypandy, when the latter was Secretary of State for Wales. In 1970 he became the first Sir Julian Hodge Professor of Banking and Finance at UWIST, Cardiff, a post he held until his retirement in 1985.