Saul Friedländer (birth name Pavel) was born in Prague to a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family. In 1939, his family was forced to flee the Nazis and went to France. While being hidden in a Roman Catholic boarding school in Montlucon, the young Friedländer converted and began training for the priesthood. His parents tried to escape to Switzerland, but were arrested by the French police, turned over to the Germans, and killed at Auschwitz. The creation of the state of Israel re-awakened Friedländer's interest in his Jewish past and his true identity, and he emigrated to Israel in 1948. In 1953, he returned to Paris to study political science and later served as secretary to Nachum Goldman, then President of the World Zionist Organization and the World Jewish Congress. In 1963, he received his Ph.D. from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, where he taught until 1988. He also taught at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and at Tel Aviv University. Since the 1960s, Prof. Friedländer has written biographies and books on history, the Holocaust, and international politics. In 1988, he became Professor of History at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has written his autobiography, titled in English "When Memory Comes."