Gusta Fučíková was born Augusta Kodeřičová to a working class family in Ostředek, Czechoslovakia. In 1921, she graduated from the Academy of Business in Prague and then studied further at business school. In 1923 she met Julius Fučík, and a year later became a member of the Czech Communist Party. They married in 1938. She worked for the Czech Ministry of Education and was a translator for the Communist newspaper Rude Pravo. During World War II, she was active in the Czech Communist resistance. In April 1942, she was arrested and imprisoned until the end of the war in various locations, including concentration camps at Theresienstadt and Ravensbrück.
After the war, she researched and retrieved her late husband's prison writings, which she published in 1947 as Notes from the Gallows, and later wrote two biographies, Memories of Julius Fučík (1961) and The Life of Julius Fučík (1971). She worked as an editor for the publishing house Svoboda for many years. In 1971 and again in 1976, she was elected to the Czech Federal Assembly. She continued to be active in the Communist Party and was a noted women's and peace activist.