|14,336 (65,955)||1,109||883|| (4.03)||47||0|
- Hexaflexagons and Other Mathematical Diversions: The First Scientific… 476 copies, 2 reviews
- Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science 463 copies, 5 reviews
- Aha! Insight 353 copies, 3 reviews
- Aha! Gotcha: Paradoxes to Puzzle and Delight 342 copies
- Did Adam and Eve Have Navels?: Debunking Pseudoscience 329 copies, 3 reviews
- The Night Is Large: Collected Essays, 1938-1995 314 copies, 2 reviews
- The Colossal Book of Mathematics: Classic Puzzles, Paradoxes, and Problems 302 copies, 2 reviews
- My Best Mathematical and Logic Puzzles 289 copies, 1 review
- Origami, Eleusis, and the Soma Cube 281 copies, 1 review
- Relativity Simply Explained 274 copies, 3 reviews
- The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener 254 copies, 4 reviews
- Mathematical Carnival 253 copies, 1 review
- Science: Good, Bad, and Bogus 244 copies, 3 reviews
- Mathematical Circus: More Games, Puzzles, Paradoxes, and Other… 232 copies, 1 review
- The Ambidextrous Universe: Mirror Asymmetry and Time-Reversed Worlds 220 copies
- The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathematical Diversions 209 copies, 1 review
- Codes, Ciphers and Secret Writing 200 copies
- More Annotated Alice: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland & Through the… (Editor) 188 copies, 1 review
- Mathematics, Magic and Mystery 166 copies, 1 review
- Sphere Packing, Lewis Carroll and Reversi (New Martin Gardner Mathematical… 162 copies
- Wheels, Life, and Other Mathematical Amusements 160 copies, 1 review
- Mathematical Magic Show: More Puzzles, Games, Diversions, Illusions and… 157 copies
- Are Universes Thicker Than Blackberries?: Discourses on Godel, Magic… 157 copies, 4 reviews
- The Colossal Book of Short Puzzles and Problems 148 copies
- Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers 147 copies
- Entertaining Mathematical Puzzles 146 copies
- Time Travel and Other Mathematical Bewilderments 144 copies, 1 review
- Great Essays in Science (Editor) 142 copies
- Knotted Doughnuts and Other Mathematical Entertainments 141 copies, 2 reviews
- Entertaining Science Experiments with Everyday Objects 133 copies, 1 review
- Perplexing Puzzles and Tantalizing Teasers 122 copies
- Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass (Introduction, some editions) 15,823 copies, 232 reviews
- The Wizard of Oz (Introduction, some editions) 12,396 copies, 300 reviews
- The Martian Chronicles (Introduction, some editions) 10,993 copies, 207 reviews
- The Man Who Was Thursday (Editor) 4,547 copies, 116 reviews
- The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of… (Foreword, some editions) 2,292 copies, 17 reviews
- The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition (Introduction; Editor) 2,116 copies, 28 reviews
- The Annotated Alice (Introduction; Editor) 1,793 copies, 22 reviews
- Casey at the Bat: A Ballad of the Republic Sung in the Year 1888 (Introduction, some editions) 738 copies, 43 reviews
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz (Foreword, some editions; Preface) 707 copies, 13 reviews
- The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing (Contributor) 546 copies, 6 reviews
- Calculus Made Easy (some editions) 510 copies, 4 reviews
- The Annotated Snark (Editor) 468 copies, 4 reviews
- How to think about weird things : critical thinking for a new age (Foreword) 325 copies, 9 reviews
- 100 Great Science Fiction Short Short Stories (Contributor) 302 copies, 3 reviews
- The Moscow Puzzles (Editor, some editions) 263 copies, 1 review
- American Fairy Tales (Introduction, some editions) 219 copies, 3 reviews
- Queen Zixi of Ix (Introduction, some editions) 213 copies, 4 reviews
- Little Wizard Stories of Oz (Introduction, some editions) 208 copies, 4 reviews
- The Magical Monarch of Mo (Introduction, some editions) 207 copies, 4 reviews
- A Dreamer's Tales (Foreword, some editions) 170 copies, 3 reviews
- Alice in Puzzle-Land (Introduction, some editions) 169 copies
- The Country of the Blind and Other Science-Fiction Stories (Editor, some editions) 161 copies, 1 review
- 536 Puzzles & Curious Problems. (Editor) 158 copies, 1 review
- An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (Editor) 148 copies
- Mathematical Puzzles of Sam Loyd (Editor) 126 copies
- The Annotated Innocence of Father Brown (Editor) 98 copies, 1 review
- Annotated Ancient Mariner: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (Editor) 97 copies, 1 review
- The Annotated Alice: 150th Anniversary Deluxe Edition (150th Deluxe… (some editions) 71 copies, 2 reviews
- Magical Mathematics: The Mathematical Ideas that Animate Great Magic… (Foreword) 70 copies, 1 review
- The Wasp in a Wig (Editor, some editions) 63 copies, 1 review
- The Vintage Anthology of Science Fantasy. (Contributor) 56 copies, 1 review
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|Date of birth|
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Martin Gardner was born on October 21 1914 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the son of a geologist who started a small oil business and became a wildcatter. As a child Martin enjoyed magic tricks and playing chess. After graduating from high school in 1932, he earned a bachelor's degree in Philosophy at the University of Chicago, having also studied history, literature and the sciences under the intellectually-stimulating Great Books curriculum.
Although brought up a devout Methodist, he lost his Christian faith as a result of his wide reading, a transition he covered in a semi-autobiographical novel The Flight of Peter Fromm (1973).
In 1937 Gardner returned to Oklahoma, taking a reporter's job on the Tulsa Tribune, and after a spell in public relations back at the University of Chicago, in 1942 joined the US Naval Reserve as a yeoman in the destroyer escort USS Pope. On night watch, he dreamed up plots for stories, which he sold to Esquire magazine. After the war he became a freelance writer, and in the 1950s wrote features for Humpty Dumpty's Magazine and other children's periodicals.
In 1956 he sold an article to Scientific American magazine and followed this up with an essay about hexaflexagons – hexagons made from strips of paper that show different faces when flexed in different ways. This so impressed the publisher that Gardner was invited to produce a regular column along similar lines. Since he had not studied mathematics after high school, Gardner plundered second-hand bookshops in Manhattan to find enough material to sustain his "Mathematical Games" column. In the event it ran for 25 years and earned Gardner the American Mathematical Society's prize for mathematical exposition.
His lack of scholarly expertise meant that instead of relying on academic jargon, Gardner packed his prose with cross-cultural references, jokes and anecdotes, giving the column the broadest-possible appeal. He introduced his readers to riddles, paradoxes, enigmas and even magic tricks, as well as concepts such as fractals and Chinese tangram puzzles, redefining the concept of "recreational mathematics".
Gardner also became known as a sceptic of the paranormal, and wrote works debunking public figures such as the psychic Uri Geller, who gained fame for claiming to bend spoons with his mind. In his first book Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (1952), Gardner exposed such quackery as flat-earth cults, alien abductions and a belief in UFOs. The book has since become a classic; the novelist Kingsley Amis, an early fan, regretted not stealing a copy when he had had the chance.
In 1976, with Carl Sagan, Isaac Asimov and others, Gardner co-founded the Committee for the Scientific Evaluation of Claims of the Paranormal, and wrote regularly for its magazine, the Skeptical Inquirer. Its most recent issue includes a feature he wrote on Oprah Winfrey's New Age interests.
In more than 70 books, Gardner produced lay guides to Einstein's Theory of Relativity; ambidexterity and physical symmetry; the bath plug vortex (the phenomenon by which bathwater in the northern hemisphere drains in an anticlockwise direction and clockwise in the southern hemisphere); and even the concept of God. He also published fiction, poetry and literary and film criticism as well as puzzle books.
In The Numerology of Dr Matrix (1967) Gardner investigated links between numerals and the occult, asking (for example) what is special about the number 8,549,176,320? (A: It is the 10 natural integers arranged in the order of the English alphabet.)
His many admirers instituted a regular convention of Gardner followers, known as "Gatherings for Gardner" (G4G), which attracted magicians, puzzle fans and mathematicians from all over the world.
Although Gardner attended these as guest of honour, as a matter of course he avoided conferences, meetings and parties, and despite his facility as a polymath never owned a computer or used email. He preferred to work standing up, and, while magic and conjuring tricks remained his principal hobby, was also an accomplished exponent of the musical saw.
Martin Gardner married, in 1952, Charlotte Greenwald, who predeceased him in 2000. Their two sons survive him.
(The Telegraph: Martin Gardner, 7:14PM BST 25 May 2010)
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