Carmen Gómez-Moreno Rodríguez was born in Madrid, Spain a daughter of Manuel Gómez-Moreno Martínez, a famous art historian and author, and his wife Maria Elena Rodríguez Lopez. After high school, she enrolled in the Faculty of Sciences of the Central University, graduating in 1936. She worked for several years in the biology laboratory at the Museum of Natural Sciences in Madrid. In 1950, she moved to the USA to study art history at Harvard University, and then got a job with the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, where she remained for the rest of her life. She was a curator in the Departments of Medieval Art at The Cloisters and European Sculpture and Decorative Arts. Between 1968 and 1984, she wrote at least eight works on medieval art.