Edmond Halley, most famous for computing the 76-year orbit of the comet named after him, was the second Astronomer Royal in Great Britain. He had numerous other inventions and achievements, including a suggestion for a high-precision measurement of the distance between the Earth and the Sun by timing the transit of Venus in 1716. In 1718 he discovered the proper motion of the "fixed" stars by comparing his astrometric measurements with those given in Ptolemy's Almagest. With his friend, the antiquarian William Stukeley, Halley participated in the first effort to scientifically date the monuments at Stonehenge, a revolutionary concept in the 18th century.
Besides Halley's Comet, there are craters on the Moon and Mars named for him, as well as other places on Earth.