Zofia Kossak, one of Poland's most popular historical novelists, married twice and kept the name Szczucka from her first marriage to Stefan Szczuckim. After his death, she remarried in 1925 to Zygmunt Szatkowski. She produced most of her best-known books in the interwar years. During World War II, she was a major figure in the resistance and helped Jews escape the Nazis, for which she was sent to Auschwitz. She was released through the efforts of the Polish underground movement and returned to Warsaw, where she participated in the Uprising of 1944. After the war, she left the country to escape the Communist regime and lived in Sweden and England. She returned to Poland in 1957.