Anneliese Maier was born in Tübingen, Germany. Her father Heinrich Maier was a scholar and professor of philosophy, and the family moved around Germany for his academic posts. She studied philosophy, mathematics, and physics at the universities of Berlin and Zurich. In 1930, she earned her doctoral degree with a dissertation on Immanuel Kant. After her father's death in 1933, she took over the editing and supervision of the final two volumes of her father's work Philosophie der Wirklichkeit. She then received a grant from the Prussian Academy of Science in Berlin to conduct research on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz in Italian libraries and archives. In 1936, she moved to Rome, where she worked in the Vatican Library and the Vatican Secret Archives. She gave the Leibnitz and Kant studies and concentrated on philosophy in the medieval period. She published a monumental five-volume study, Studien zur Naturphilosophie der Spätscholastik, (1949-1958), and a three-volume collection of essays, Ausgehendes Mittelalter (1964-1967), as well as numerous scholarly articles. Although she never returned to Germany, she became a member of the Academies of Sciences in Göttingen and Munich, and received the George Sarton Medal in 1966 for her profound studies on the history of natural philosophy in the Middle Ages. The Alexander von Humboldt Foundation named the Anneliese Maier Research Award in her memory. It is awarded to those who promote the internationalization of the humanities and social sciences in Germany.