Marie Mauron was born Marie Antoinette Roumanille to a French peasant family in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. She attended secondary school in Marseilles and then teacher training school for girls in Aix-en-Provence. In 1919, she married Charles Mauron, a literary critic and translator of contemporary English authors. Like her husband, she became an activist in the Provençal language. She served as town clerk in the town of Mas-Blanc-des-Alpilles and began writing Journal du Cheval, a town chronicle that captured the attention of British writers such as Virginia Woolf and E.M. Forster. She published her first book, Mont Peacock, in 1934. She gave up teaching in 1941 to devote herself to writing, and had a long and prolific career as an author in French and Provençal that comprised poems, novels, short stories, memoirs, biographies, and many articles and essays. Many of her works concerned the Provence region, earning her the nickname, "la Grande Dame de Provence." She was honored by the Académie française in 1962 for her book Mes grandes heures de Provence.