George Sand, the pen name of Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, is better known today for her Romantic idealism and her rebellion against 19th-century oppression of women than for her pioneering literary works. She was raised by her paternal grandmother, Marie Aurore de Saxe, at the latter's estate of Nohant in the province of Berry, France, and educated partly at a convent. In 1822, at the age of 18, she married Baron Casimir Dudevant, with whom she had two children. In 1831, she left her husband and went to Paris, where she wore male attire, smoked in public, and adopted a male pseudonym. She had a nearly 10-year love affair with Frédéric Chopin.