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Benedictus de Spinoza (1632–1677)

Author of The Ethics

Includes the names: Spinoza, B Spinoza, スピノザ, Baruj Spinoza, Spinoza/elwes, B. de Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Espinosa, Benedykt Spinoza ... (see complete list), Bento De Spinoza, Benedict Spinoza, Benedetto Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Bento De Espinosa, Baruch de Espinosa, Benedictus Spinoza, Baruch de Espinosa, Benedikt de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedicti de Spinoza, Benedicti de Spinoza, Benedictus De Spinoza, Benedict de] [Spinoza, Benedictus de Spinoza, Benedictus de Spinosa, Benedictus De Spinoza, Bénédicte de Spinoza, ברוך שפינוזה, Benedikt von von Spinoza, R. H. W. (Spinoza) Elwes, Benedictus Baruch Spinoza, Spinoza; Joseph Ratner (Ed), Benedictus (Baruch) d Spinoza, Бенедикт Спиноза, James ed Benedict de) Gutmann Spinoza, intro-Joseph Ratner, Baruch de Spinoza, James ed Gutmann Spinoza (Benedict de), Baruch Spinoza (Benedictus de Spinoza), Benedictus De Spinoza (Benedict Spinoza), R. H. M. (Translator); Benedict Spinoza Elwes, R H M (translator) De Benedict; Elwes Spinoza, Joseph (editor B.; Ratner Spinoza, introduction), Benedictus De Spinoza Translated By Andrew Boyle, R. H. M. (translator) Benedict de; Elwes Spinoza, and Elwes Benedict Spinoza, R. H. M. (Translated, A. (translation); Santayana Baruch; Boyle Spinoza, Benedict De Spinoza; Translator R.H.M. Elwes; Intr, Benedictus De Spinoza; Translator And Introduction, Spinoza; translated by A. Boyle; introduction by G
Also includes: Espinosa (1)

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Short biography
Baruch Spinoza was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to a Sephardic Jewish family whose recent ancestors had been expelled from or fled Spain and Portugal. He received a thorough education, including the study of medieval philosophy as well as the works of Descartes, Hobbes, and other contemporaries. He became a key philosopher and writer laying the groundwork for the Enlightenment, though the importance of his work was not fully realized until many years after his death.
Based on his radical views, the Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam banned him from their society at age 23. Around this time, he adopted the Latin form of his name, Benedictus de Spinoza. He made a living grinding optical lenses, and continued his scholarly writing. He died in 1677 at age 44, allegedly of a lung illness, perhaps caused by the dust inhaled during his work. Of his writings, only A Treatise on Religious and Political Philosophy (1670) was published during his lifetime. His books Ethics, Political Treatise, and Hebrew Grammar appeared posthumously in 1677.
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