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Author photo. 1884 carte de visite from photograph of painting by Ernst Hader (LoC Prints and Photographs, LC-USZ62-118849)

1884 carte de visite from photograph of painting by Ernst Hader (LoC Prints and Photographs, LC-USZ62-118849)

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Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker married Baron Erik Magnus de Staël, a Swedish diplomat and politician, in 1786. Her father was Jacques Necker, Louis XVI's Minister of Finance; her mother Suzanne Necker was a famous salonnière whose circle included Gibbon and Diderot. As the Swedish ambassador, Madame de Staël's husband had political immunity during the early years of the French Revolution, enabling her to remain in France and help others to flee. But she herself was forced to flee several times to Switzerland. On returning in 1797, she established her own salon and became a leader of progressive politics and intellectual life in Paris. Her literary and political criticism and novels were influential in European Romanticism. She was an open opponent of the rule of the Emperor Napoleon, and he ordered her into exile in 1802. She returned again to Paris in 1814 after he was defeated.
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