Henry of Monmouth (c. 1387-1422), King of England 1413-1422. He was not born to the purple, and in fact was not the rightful king of England. Richard II (deposed 1399) was the grandson of Edward III by that king's first son Edward the Black Prince. When Richard was deposed, he had no heir, and the Black Prince had no other descendants. The proper heir would have been one of the descendants of Edward III's second son Lionel, but they were not in good position to claim the throne; instead, it went to Henry of Bolingbroke, eldest son of Edward III's son John of Gaunt. Bolingbroke thus became King Henry IV. He was not very successful, but when his son Henry V succeeded, he changed all that. In 1415, Henry V invaded France and won the Battle of Agincourt. In the period 1417-1419, he conquered Normandy. In 1420, by the Treaty of Troyes, he reached an agreement with the government of the "mad" French King Charles VI to marry Charles's daughter Katherine and was named heir to the French throne. But Henry was never to occupy that throne. He was busily conquering the rest of France when, in 1422, he became ill and died of dysentery. His only child was a nine-month-old boy, crowned King Henry VI, whose mental illness recalled that of his maternal grandfather. During his reign, the English would be expelled from France and Henry VI himself would be deposed. Henry V was the main character of three Shakespeare plays (the two Henry IV plays and, of course, Henry V) -- but it probably goes without saying that these plays are about 1% history (and that not entirely accurate) and 99% Shakespeare.