John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (d. 1485): A member of an old Norfolk family, he was at birth a member of the gentry, not the nobility, although he could claim descent from the Mowbrays of Norfolk. He served in France in the 1450s, fought with the Yorkists in the 1459-1461 phase of the Wars of the Roses, and was knighted after the Battle of Towton. He was made Lord Howard for his service in 1470. In 1481, after the death of Anne Mowbray, the last of the Norfolk Mowbrays, he should have received a share of the Norfolk dukedom, but Edward IV held it for himself. After Edward IV died and Richard III took the throne, Richard gave the Norfolk dukedom to Howard. Howard was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 (being probably in his mid-fifties at the time), and the Dukedom was temporarily allowed to lapse by the new Tudor kings, but it was re-granted to Howard's son after the son won the Battle of Flodden in 1513. The Howards have been Dukes of Norfolk ever since; it is the oldest surviving Ducal lineage in England.