John Hyrcanus I (died 104 B.C.E.). The third High Priest of the Hasmonean family, and the second of the independent Maccabean princes. He was the son of Simon, the brother of Judas Maccabaeus. When Simon was murdered in 134, Hyrcanus, his only surviving son, became ruler of the Jews. Early in his career, he had some trouble with the Seleucids, but soon re-established his independence. When he died in 104, his son Aristobulus (I) succeeded to a strong and independent theocratic state.