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The Better Angels of Our Nature: A History of Violence and Humanity (edition 2012)

by Steven Pinker

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8592510,397 (4.12)1 / 33
Member:peterveen
Title:The Better Angels of Our Nature: A History of Violence and Humanity
Authors:Steven Pinker
Info:Penguin (2012), Paperback, 1056 pages
Collections:Your library, History, politics, culture, misc., Science
Rating:****1/2
Tags:evolution, psychology, cultural history

Work details

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

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English (24)  German (1)  All languages (25)
Showing 1-5 of 24 (next | show all)
Required reading for anyone who cares about the State and its relation to violence. The charts and graphs detailing the decline of violence are convincing. The proffered explanations less so, but Pinker isn't trying to be authoritative. They are intriguing and well developed, and give much to think about. A lot of neuroscience, psychology, evolutionary biology, and game theory.
4.5 stars on completion (oc)
After a few months: I find myself frequently using arguments from this book, to great effect. It remains a 4.5 star book. ( )
  starcat | Aug 11, 2014 |
Society is not broken, and the world is less scarred by violence than at any time in history. It's not a jungle out there. In fact, we're all getting nicer and nicer, except perhaps in a few marginal places, far from Harvard. Yes, Dr Pangloss is in the house, as the amiable Steven Pinker offers some perspective on our contemporary world. His thesis is fair enough, and indeed quickly stated - that law, government and rationalism have reduced much of the brutishness that previous generations suffered under. But he spins it out over such garrulous length that one is pretty much obliged to skim the book. It's always enjoyable to read despite the author's excesses of style, but in the end too Eurocentric, and has no special insight for predicting what will come next. Will we perhaps all go veggy or tolerate currently taboo sexual relations? No, no, all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds (or in the current rendering: "Everything is awesome, ..."). ( )
  eglinton | Apr 3, 2014 |
Throwing in the towel two-thirds through.

The first part of the book is quite interesting and Pinker successfully argues that we now live in a much less violence-prone world.

He then goes on to talk about the whys, and this part is both less convincing and intensely tedious. I felt that at times he overstated the evidence and walked very close to woo territory.

Worth reading for the first half. Avoid the rest when you start gnawing on your arms in boredom. ( )
  StigE | Feb 22, 2014 |
I enjoyed his arguments and his collection of data from different historical surveys and textual study, but I found the overall structure of the book longwinded and incoherent. Pinker jumped around throughout history, when the obvious structure of the book would follow time, as violence has decreased through time. Also, many of his causal explanations were lacking. ( )
  Lovering | Nov 8, 2013 |
Faced with the ceaseless stream of news about war, crime, and terrorism, one could easily think we live in the most violent age ever seen. Yet as New York Times bestselling author Steven Pinker shows in this startling and engaging new work, just the opposite is true: violence has been diminishing for millennia and we may be living in the most peaceful time in our species's existence. For most of history, war, slavery, infanticide, child abuse, assassinations, pogroms, gruesome punishments, deadly quarrels, and genocide were ordinary features of life. But today, Pinker shows (with the help of more than a hundred graphs and maps) all these forms of violence have dwindled and are widely condemned. How has this happened?

This groundbreaking book continues Pinker's exploration of the essence of human nature, mixing psychology and history to provide a remarkable picture of an increasingly nonviolent world. The key, he explains, is to understand our intrinsic motives- the inner demons that incline us toward violence and the better angels that steer us away-and how changing circumstances have allowed our better angels to prevail. Exploding fatalist myths about humankind's inherent violence and the curse of modernity, this ambitious and provocative book is sure to be hotly debated in living rooms and the Pentagon alike, and will challenge and change the way we think about our society. ( )
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  MarkBeronte | Jul 28, 2013 |
Showing 1-5 of 24 (next | show all)
But in its confidence and sweep, the vast timescale, its humane standpoint and its confident world-view, it is something more than a science book: it is an epic history by an optimist who can list his reasons to be cheerful and support them with persuasive instances.

I don't know if he's right, but I do think this book is a winner.
added by Widsith | editThe Guardian, Tim Radford (Nov 19, 2012)
 
The biggest problem with the book, though, is its overreliance on history, which, like the light on a caboose, shows us only where we are not going.
 
“The Better Angels of Our Nature” is a supremely important book. To have command of so much research, spread across so many different fields, is a masterly achievement. Pinker convincingly demonstrates that there has been a dramatic decline in violence, and he is persuasive about the causes of that decline.
 
While Pinker makes a great show of relying on evidence—the 700-odd pages of this bulky treatise are stuffed with impressive-looking graphs and statistics—his argument that violence is on the way out does not, in the end, rest on scientific investigation. He cites numerous reasons for the change, including increasing wealth and the spread of democracy. For him, none is as important as the adoption of a particular view of the world: “The reason so many violent institutions succumbed within so short a span of time was that the arguments that slew them belong to a coherent philosophy that emerged during the Age of Reason and the Enlightenment. The ideas of thinkers like Hobbes, Spinoza, Descartes, Locke, David Hume, Mary Astell, Kant, Beccaria, Smith, Mary Wollstonecraft, Madison, Jefferson, Hamilton and John Stuart Mill coalesced into a worldview that we can call Enlightenment humanism.”
added by atbradley | editProspect, John Gray (Sep 21, 2011)
 
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Epigraph
What a chimera then is man! What a novelty, what a monster, what a chaos,

what a contradiction, what a prodigy! Judge of all things, feeble earthworm,

repository of truth, sewer of uncertainty and error, the glory and the scum of

the universe. 

   — Blaise Pascal
Dedication
TO

Eva, Carl, and Erik

Jack and David

Yael and Danielle
and the world they will inherit
First words
If the past is a foreign country, it is a shockingly violent one.
Quotations
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(Click to show. Warning: May contain spoilers.)
Disambiguation notice
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Book description
http://veja.abril.com.br/noticia/cien...

Estudo: humanidade está mais inteligente e menos violenta

Tese é defendida pelo renomado psicólogo canadense Steven Pinker, em artigo publicado na edição desta quarta-feira na revista 'Nature'
Comportamento
Estudo: humanidade está mais inteligente e menos violenta
 
Combatentes líbios: mesmo com guerras, humanidade está mais pacífica, diz o psicólogo Steven Pinker (Zohra Bensemra / Reuters) 
"Apesar de atualmente nos sentirmos constantemente rodeados pela violência, em séculos anteriores a situação era muito pior." — Steven Pinker, psicólogo canadense
"A afirmação popular de que o século XX é 'o mais sangrento da história' é uma mera ilusão que dificilmente pode ser apoiada em dados históricos."
A sensação de que nunca houve tanta violência como nos tempos modernos é ilusória e dificilmente resistiria à pesquisa histórica. Segundo um estudo publicado nesta quarta-feira na revista Nature, nunca houve, proporcionalmente, tão poucos assassinatos e tão pouca violência, de um modo geral. O defensor da tese é o renomado psicólogo canadense Steven Pinker. De acordo com ele, em termos históricos, as pessoas estão cada vez mais inteligentes, e em consequência disso, menos violentas.

Pinker argumenta que o aumento da inteligência, verificável em pontuações cada vez mais altas nos teste de raciocínio, é responsável pelo declínio da barbárie nos últimos séculos. Outros fatores são a alfabetização e o cosmopolitismo, que estimulam a troca de informações e a realização de acordos entre distintas sociedades. "Apesar de atualmente nos sentirmos constantemente rodeados pela violência, em séculos anteriores a situação era muito pior. Impérios em colapso, conquistadores maníacos e invasões tribais eram comuns", afirma Pinker.
Arte VEJA
 
Dados corroboram a tese — A arqueologia forense e estudos demográficos sugerem que antes dos Estados modernos em torno de 15% dos indivíduos morriam de maneira violenta, uma proporção cinco vezes maior à registrada no século XX, apesar de suas guerras, genocídios e crises de fome.
Nesse sentido, Pinker aponta que a afirmação popular de que "o século XX é o mais sangrento da história" é uma mera ilusão e não se apoia em dados históricos. Segundo ele, de um modo geral, a barbárie diminuiu não só com relação a conflitos armados, mas também a comportamentos sociais. "Nos últimos séculos, a humanidade abandonou progressivamente práticas como os sacrifícios humanos, a perseguição de hereges e métodos cruéis de execução como a fogueira, a crucificação e a empalação", diz o psicólogo.

No século XIV, na Europa Ocidental, 40 em cada 100.000 pessoas morriam assassinadas, enquanto atualmente essa taxa se reduziu a 1,3 pessoa. No Brasil, ainda há cidades que apresentam taxas de homicídios muito superiores aos da Europa medieval: Recife (PE), Vitória (ES) e Maceió (AL) têm taxas de 90,5; 87 e 80,9 homicídios por 100.000 habitantes respectivamente. Mas o estado de São Paulo, por exemplo, reduziu a taxa de homicídios de 35,27 em 1999 para 9,6 no primeiro semestre de 2011. A taxa nacional é de 25 homicídios por 100.000 habitantes.
Biblioteca
The Better Angels of Our Nature
 O título do livro foi pinçado de um discurso de Abraham Lincoln, presidente dos Estados Unidos durante a Guerra de Secessão. O polêmico e ambicioso livro (sem previsão de lançamento no Brasil) traz essencialmente a mesma tese defendida no artigo da Nature, ratificada por mais dados e explicada minuciosamente.

Autor: PINKER, STEVEN
Editora: VIKING PRESS
Moral? Não, mais inteligência — Pinker atribui essa evolução ao aperfeiçoamento da racionalidade e não a questões morais, que, argumenta, já serviram para legitimar todo tipo de castigos sangrentos. "A propagação de normas morais tornou frequentes as represálias violentas por faltas como a blasfêmia, a heresia, a indecência e as ofensas contra os símbolos sagrados", afirma.

O estudo ressalta que com o tempo o ser humano foi refreando a agressividade, presente desde os primeiros Homo sapiens. "A racionalidade humana precisou de milhares de anos para concluir que não é bom escravizar outras pessoas, exterminar povos, encarcerar homossexuais e iniciar guerras para restaurar a vaidade ferida de um rei", diz o psicólogo.

O autor do estudo apoia sua tese sobre o aumento da inteligência em pesquisas anteriores, que mostram como o Quociente Intelectual (QI) médio aumenta a cada geração. "As empresas que vendem testes de inteligência têm que normalizar seus resultados periodicamente. Um adolescente médio de hoje em dia marcaria um QI de 130 se voltasse a 1910, enquanto uma pessoa daquela época não passaria da pontuação 70 atualmente", explica Pinker.
(Com Agência EFE)
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We've all asked, "What is the world coming to?" But we seldom ask, "How bad was the world in the past?" In this startling new book, cognitive scientist Steven Pinker shows that the past was much worse. Evidence of a bloody history has always been around us: genocides in the Old Testament, gory mutilations in Shakespeare and Grimm, monarchs who beheaded their relatives, and American founders who dueled with their rivals. The murder rate in medieval Europe was more than thirty times what it is today. Slavery, sadistic punishments, and frivolous executions were common features of life for millennia, then were suddenly abolished. How could this have happened, if human nature has not changed? Pinker argues that thanks to the spread of government, literacy, trade, and cosmopolitanism, we increasingly control our impulses, empathize with others, debunk toxic ideologies, and deploy our powers of reason to reduce the temptations of violence.--From publisher description.… (more)

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Two editions of this book were published by Penguin Australia.

Editions: 1846140943, 0141034645

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