This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. By using LibraryThing you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. Your use of the site and services is subject to these policies and terms.
Hide this

Results from Google Books

Click on a thumbnail to go to Google Books.

An Evaluation of Trans-generational Family…

An Evaluation of Trans-generational Family Counselling And Family Rituals…

by Ankwasiize Evarist . & Kiyingi Frank

MembersReviewsPopularityAverage ratingConversations
Recently added byAnkwasiize.Evarist

No tags.



Sign up for LibraryThing to find out whether you'll like this book.

No current Talk conversations about this book.

An Evaluation of Trans-generational family counselling and Family rituals as a hinge for cohesive parenting: a case study of selected families in Kampala District.
(i) DR. ANKWANSIIZE GABOSYA EVARIST (Psy.D) (Counselling Psychologist: NKUMBA UNIVERSITY): Lecturer School of Education and Humanities (SEHS) 256-77442692; evaristank@gmail.com and
(ii) KIYINGI FRANK PIO (Counselling Psychologists: NKUMBA UNIVERSITY) Lecturer School of Education and Humanities (SEHS) PhD Candidate-Nkumba. kfrankpio@yahoo.com
Key words: Trans-generational family counselling; Family rituals; cohesive parenting
Rituals that mark the transition from one’s personal, social or religious status to another exist in every known society (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1993). Some of the particular transitions marked, reflecting life cycle changes in people's bodies, are themselves are universally shared within various families.
Fiese et al., (2002) asserted that family rituals are a set of behaviours that are repeated and symbolically meaningful. Family rituals offer families with a sense of identity and belonging from one generation to another.
Transgenerational Family counselling also known as intergenerational family therapy was developed by Murray Bowen who understood family as an emotional unit, a net work of interlocking relationships, best known when analyzed within a multigenerational historical framework (Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 1991).
Statement of Problem: The functionality of emotional levels in the family rituals creates family cohesiveness. However, the mal-functionality of emotional ranking within the family impairs family cohesiveness, where the members lack sense of autonomy and differentiation. Children are key members who are parented in such a non-cohesive environment. The lack of functional emotional levels exposes the family to compromised family rituals whereby such emotional deficit and weakened family rituals impact on the nature of parenting dynamics. Basing on the above, the study evaluated how emotional levels and family rituals influence parenting cohesiveness.
The research questions were: How is trans-generational family counselling practiced? What is the nature of family rituals? How does family emotional levels and family rituals impact on parenting cohesiveness?
Material and Methods: The study randomly selected 412 family members (female (60%) and male (40%) respondents). The study used questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussions and observation as major data collection tools. The study was guided by Family Environment Scale, Family Ritual Questionnaire and Parental Psychological Control as study instruments.
Results: Study findings revealed the increase in self differentiation (Mean: 49.52, SD = 11.78), family routines (Mean: = 58.46, SD =15.60) and parental warmth (Mean: 48.53, SD = 9.30). However, there was a decrease in the family emotional systems (Mean: 25.33, SD = 5.89), family celebrations (Mean: 12.76, SD = 3.50) and parental control (Mean: 39.19, SD = 11.67).
Discussion of findings
From the statistical findings as presented in Table 1, the research exposed that there was an increase in differentiation of self of several family members with the mean score of (Mean: 49.52, SD = 11.78) of the family members through trans-generational family counselling. The findings are in agreement with Kerr & Bowen (1988) who argued that differentiation of self is the ability of a family member to define his or her own life’s goals and values irrespective of the societal/family pressures. The researchers concur with the findings and the authors given the fact that differentiation of self increases the family members’ level of individuation at the balance between the emotional diffusion or fusion in the family system to give societal progression.

Goldenberg & Goldenberg (1991) clarified that the emotional system entails how the family handles closeness, distance and anxiety in family as directed to marriage, one spouse, or to child in form of marital conflict. One responds to others by complementing, cutoff or rebellion against the family systems. This kind of emotional cutoff or rebellion is reflected in the study findings with the decrease in the family emotional systems functioning with the mean score of (Mean: 25.33, SD = 5.89) based on the operations of the trans-generational family counselling.
The researchers in comparing the findings and the two scholars’ argument got an insight about the family members’ level of differentiation of self to have affected the individuals’ level of emotional manifestation when faced with anxiety.
Walsh, F., (2006) elaborated that family routines are rituals which are most frequently enacted but least consciously planned by the participants. The family routines are manifested in the patterns and habits in the family activities that are repeated over time and well coordinated. The study findings revealed that there was a mean score of (Mean: = 58.46, SD =15.60) in the family routines. Whereas for the family celebrations there was a mean score of (Mean: 12.76, SD = 3.50) that is in agreement with Fiese (2006) who asserted that family celebrations are rituals in which the family observes holidays or occasions that are widely practiced by the culture and are special in the family. Wolin and Bennett (1984) argued that the occasions such as funerals, weddings, baptisms, religious holidays, secular holidays and thanksgiving are family celebrations.
The other form of family rituals is family traditions are activities which are less culture-specific and more unique to each family (Cox Meg, 2012). The events included in this category are vacations, visits to and from extended family members, anniversary and birthday customs, parties with special food and music, participation in community events, and activities with kin.
According to table. 1 it was found out that there was consolidated parental warmth with the mean score of (Mean: 48.53, SD = 9.30), thus further increased the parental cohesiveness and that of the entire family system. In addition, the result of parental control based on parenting dimension with the means score of (Mean: 39.19, SD = 11.67). The findings are in agreement with Diana Baumrind (1966) who considered the four basic elements that could help shape successful parenting: responsiveness vs. unresponsiveness and demanding vs. undemanding (parental control vs. warmth). From these, she identified three general parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive Parenthood is core as it shapes the future members of the society and it must be based on psychosocial family rights. Baumrind did not argue that in terms of child outcome, the authoritarian nor were the permissive parenting styles as successful as the authoritative parenting style (Baumrind, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1993).
The study concluded that the family rituals had a strong relationship with family therapies and parental cohesion. The research recommended that the religious and all cultural institutions should endeavour to engage families to form functional family rituals. The study further recommended through the ministry of health, ministry of education and the Uganda counselling association should promote the practical implementation of the Trans-generational family counselling to be practiced in Uganda.

Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behaviour. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75(1), 43-88.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
Cox Meg (2012). The Book of New Family Traditions (Revised and Updated): How to Create Great Rituals for Holidays and Every Day. NJ: Running Press Book Publishers.
Encyclopaedia Britannica (1993): Sacred rites and ceremonies; in Macropaedia, volume 26, pages 770 to 842.
Fiese H. Barbara (2006). Family Routines and Rituals: Current perspectives in psychology. NY: Yale University Press.
Fiese, b. h.; tomcho, t.; douglas, m.; josephs, k.;poltrock, s.; and baker, t. a. (2002). "review of fifty years of research on naturally occurring family routines and rituals: cause for celebration?" journal of family psychology.
Fiese, Barbara H., Thomas J. Tomcho, Michael Douglas, Kimberly Josephs, Scott Poltrock, and Tim Baker, (2002) “A Review of 50 Years of Research on Naturally Occurring Family Routines and Rituals: Cause for Celebration?” Journal of Family Psychology, 16 (4), 381-390.
Fiese, Barbara H., Tomcho, Thomas J., Douglas, Michael, Josephs, Kimberly, Poltrock, Scott, and Baker, Tim. (2002) A Review of 50 Years of Research on Naturally Occurring Family Routines and Rituals: Cause for Celebration? Journal of Family Psychology. 16,4: 381-390.
Kerr, M., E.& Bowen, M. (1988).Family Evaluation: An Approach Based On Bowen Theory. New York: Norton.
Walsh, F. (2006). Strengthening family resilience. (2nd). New York: Guilford Press.
Wolin, Steven J. and Linda A. Bennett, (1984). “Family Rituals.” Family Process. 23: 401-420.
  Ankwasiize.Evarist | Jun 27, 2016 |
no reviews | add a review
You must log in to edit Common Knowledge data.
For more help see the Common Knowledge help page.
Series (with order)
Canonical title
Original title
Alternative titles
Original publication date
Important places
Important events
Related movies
Awards and honors
First words
Last words
Disambiguation notice
Publisher's editors
Publisher series
Original language
Canonical DDC/MDS

References to this work on external resources.

Wikipedia in English


Book description
Haiku summary

No descriptions found.

No library descriptions found.

Quick Links

Popular covers



Average: No ratings.

Is this you?

Become a LibraryThing Author.


About | Contact | Privacy/Terms | Help/FAQs | Blog | Store | APIs | TinyCat | Legacy Libraries | Early Reviewers | Common Knowledge | 128,166,107 books! | Top bar: Always visible