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Der Fremde (German Edition) by Albert Camus
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Der Fremde (German Edition) (edition 1961)

by Albert Camus

Series: Cycle de l'absurde (1)

MembersReviewsPopularityAverage ratingConversations / Mentions
28,93638567 (3.96)1 / 638
When a young Algerian named Meursault kills a man, his subsequent imprisonment and trial are puzzling and absurd. The apparently amoral Meursault--who puts little stock in ideas like love and God--seems to be on trial less for his murderous actions, and more for what the authorities believe is his deficient character.… (more)
Member:timoheuer
Title:Der Fremde (German Edition)
Authors:Albert Camus
Info:Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH (1961), Paperback, 142 pages
Collections:Your library
Rating:****
Tags:französische literatur, algerien, kolonialzeit, mord, ich-perspektive, ich-erwählung

Work details

The Stranger by Albert Camus (Author)

  1. 321
    The Trial by Franz Kafka (chrisharpe, DLSmithies)
    DLSmithies: Two protagonists on trial without really understanding what they're being accused of - it's just a question of degree.
  2. 191
    Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky (chrisharpe, DLSmithies, edelpao)
    DLSmithies: A compare-and-contrast exercise - Raskolnikov is all nervous energy and hypertension, whereas Meursault is detatched, calm, and won't pretend to feel remorse. Two masterpieces.
  3. 60
    The Meursault Investigation by Kamel Daoud (Philosofiction, JuliaMaria)
    JuliaMaria: Meursault ist der Protagonist in dem existentialistischen Roman "Der Fremde", auf den sich Daoud in seiner Gegendarstellung bezieht.
  4. 71
    Notes from Underground by Fyodor Dostoevsky (hiddenpunk)
  5. 104
    A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess (SanctiSpiritus)
  6. 72
    No Exit and Three Other Plays by Jean-Paul Sartre (HollyMS)
    HollyMS: I read both works in French class. Though Albert Camus denied being an existentialist, both L'Étranger (The Stranger) and Huis Clos (No Exit) have some common themes and are among some of the most important 20th century French works of literature.
  7. 94
    Nausea by Jean-Paul Sartre (roby72)
  8. 40
    The Man Who Watched the Trains Go By by Georges Simenon (thorold)
    thorold: Respectable bourgeois discovers absurdity of life and commits motiveless crime.
  9. 41
    Whatever by Michel Houellebecq (sanddancer)
  10. 30
    Barabbas by Pär Lagerkvist (Troddel)
  11. 20
    No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre (rretzler)
  12. 21
    The Fall by Albert Camus (chrisharpe)
  13. 00
    Homesick for Another World: Stories by Ottessa Moshfegh (j_aroche)
    j_aroche: If you ever feel like an alien in the wrong planet.
  14. 00
    She Came to Stay by Simone de Beauvoir (JuliaMaria)
  15. 00
    The Pigeon by Patrick Süskind (P_S_Patrick)
    P_S_Patrick: Short, deeply existentialist novels of literary character.
  16. 00
    The Execution: A Novel by Hugo Wilcken (sparemethecensor)
    sparemethecensor: Similar in style, theme, narration and execution. The Execution is a more modern version of the tale.
  17. 00
    The Adversary by Emmanuel Carrère (bertilak)
  18. 11
    The Family of Pascual Duarte by Camilo José Cela (thatguyzero)
  19. 01
    Cosmos by Witold Gombrowicz (Bitter_Grace)
  20. 12
    At the Existentialist Café: Freedom, Being, and Apricot Cocktails with Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Others by Sarah Bakewell (JuliaMaria)

(see all 24 recommendations)

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Showing 1-5 of 337 (next | show all)
I think I completely missed whatever it is that makes this book a classic. Seriously, it obviously went right over my head.

That said, it was well-enough crafted. I just don't see it as the life-changing book that so many people consider it to be.
  Tara_Calaby | Jun 22, 2020 |
The day after I wrote this.

The most extraordinary coincidence. I've just been accused of murder. Well, perhaps 'accused' isn't altogether the right word. It was almost more like admiring. If it is true, then all I can say is this. The pen is mightier than the sword. And gee. If it is some special talent, I wish I could put it to better effect. The person I'm supposed to have murdered honestly just didn't bug me that much.

And frankly, the whole humidity thing is on shakier ground now, I might add.

--------------------------------------------------​

I was standing at a bus stop in Adelaide today, sun beating down in a bone-dry sort of way, thinking yes, why not, what could be more obvious than to murder the person standing next to me? Not that I did, but.

Later on I asked the people I'm staying with if they thought Adelaide weather fulfilled the conditions for the plot of The Outsider. Judy was sure you needed humidity. I was rather surprised as I thought humidity would be enervating. But I've had a bit of a cruise around the net and evidently not. Humidity = murder. Algers: quite high humidity. Adelaide: humidity about nil. I'll feel more comfortable getting my knitting out next time I'm waiting for a bus here.

If you are the least bit interested in a ghoulish look at how bizarre murder gets when the humidity is high enough go here:

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/backgroundbriefing/stories/2007/2000361.htm

It makes the outsider look rational. ( )
  bringbackbooks | Jun 16, 2020 |
The day after I wrote this.

The most extraordinary coincidence. I've just been accused of murder. Well, perhaps 'accused' isn't altogether the right word. It was almost more like admiring. If it is true, then all I can say is this. The pen is mightier than the sword. And gee. If it is some special talent, I wish I could put it to better effect. The person I'm supposed to have murdered honestly just didn't bug me that much.

And frankly, the whole humidity thing is on shakier ground now, I might add.

--------------------------------------------------​

I was standing at a bus stop in Adelaide today, sun beating down in a bone-dry sort of way, thinking yes, why not, what could be more obvious than to murder the person standing next to me? Not that I did, but.

Later on I asked the people I'm staying with if they thought Adelaide weather fulfilled the conditions for the plot of The Outsider. Judy was sure you needed humidity. I was rather surprised as I thought humidity would be enervating. But I've had a bit of a cruise around the net and evidently not. Humidity = murder. Algers: quite high humidity. Adelaide: humidity about nil. I'll feel more comfortable getting my knitting out next time I'm waiting for a bus here.

If you are the least bit interested in a ghoulish look at how bizarre murder gets when the humidity is high enough go here:

http://www.abc.net.au/rn/backgroundbriefing/stories/2007/2000361.htm

It makes the outsider look rational. ( )
  bringbackbooks | Jun 16, 2020 |
The Stranger or The Outsider (L’Étranger) is a clean, simple, 20-minute read for any age. Camus draws in Faulkner's superfluous detailing, an occasional flash of romantic personification native to Conrad, American realism taken directly from Hemingway, Fitzgerald's brevity, and pervasive anxiety from Melville. However, The Stranger is a cut-rate Crime & Punishment; the narration, the structure, the ideological clash at the end, are nearly shot-for-shot plagiarized from C&P. The Stranger is essentially a Realist, Nihilistic book report on C&P in the style of the American writers, and as such, is plagiarism on every level. How does one win a Nobel prize in literature by copying well-known novels? The Stranger is like C&P was summarized by a retarded and suicidal labradoodle who had just read too much Hemingway.

The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus are companion books; every action of Meursault is clearly explained in the Myth. Classical Analysis of The Stranger is superfluous in this case, as Camus explains the psychology aspects of Meursault in expansive detail. The Stranger is a thought experiment exactly like Dost's The Idiot; it is an expression of the Absurdist strand of Nihilism Camus articulates in The Myth; it is a literary expression of Camus' version of the Nietzschean superman. But his expressed goal of charting a way to life (mind you, not a meaningful life, but simply not a suicidal life) through The Absurd desert of French Neo-Nihilism remains unrealized.

Here Camus illustrates what we already knew: Nihilism is a genocidal faith. Dostoevsky documents in exquisite detail where Nihilism, Utilitarianism, and Utopianism would lead in the 20th century in Demons, The Idiot, Karamazov, and C&P and history vindicated his prophesies. Camus, steeped in the Dostoevskian universe, understands the evils of Nihilism through the eyes of Dost, and tries to create his own version without the suicidal aspects. He wrote, "The real nineteenth-century prophet was Dostoevsky, not Karl Marx." He predicted that Nihilism would lead to the Holodomor, the Holocaust, and the Khmer Rouge, and Camus admits that this is so. Despite admitting Dost was right, his version of semi-Nihilism still keeps the most dangerous aspects of the Creed. Camus' philosophy destroys both morality on the individual and collective level, and The Stranger is a great elucidation of this.

This is precisely why it's important to point out that The Emperor has No Clothes when it comes to the Neo-Nihilists like Bukowski, Camus, Sartre, and Vonnegut. These popular 'modern' philosophers are peddling a very old, very dangerous creed as something new and progressive. And people have bought it, thinking it different than the creed of Stalin, Lenin and Pol Pot. It's not. And I fear about the future of a world who does not see anything wrong with the the semi-Nihilistic, amoral poison Camus took from the predecessors of Stalin and is peddling to the modern man.

-The Absurd-

The Absurd is a Kierkegaardian concept which Camus hijacks and adopts as his own. The Absurd is the realization of the disconnect between the cold, agnostic, and meaningless universe and the finite and infinite realities of the individuals' consciousness. It is a "metaphysical state of the unconscious man" and is "lucid reason noting its own limits... The absurd is essentially a divorce. It lies in neither of the elements compared; it is born of their confrontation". It is the existentialist reality the human mind finds itself trapped in.

The Existentialist, unconscious, and uninterrupted state of the individual is the only actual reality we can know, Camus argues. All of history that came before the individual's experience with reality is meaningless and has not led us to progress, but the realization that progress is meaningless since there can be no goal for humanity to seek in the religion of Absurdism. Camus writes "The primitive hostility of the world rises up to face us across millennia" and that the dizziness, the lack of an anchor is the only reality one can know; "This incalculable tumble before the image of what we are, this "nausea", as a writer of today calls it, is also the absurd."

Camus does not refine the concept of The Absurd further than Kierkegaard; rather, he makes it more ambiguous. Somehow, even after heavily plagiarizing Dostoevsky and Kierkegaard, he managed to move backward in both definitions and analysis. Presumably, a thinker tries to progress the field by standing on the shoulders of those who came before him; Camus does the opposite. He takes their questions and thoughts, creates a shoddy and half-baked reconstruction of them, and then bigotedly asserts everyone is wrong, but his non-answer is somehow better and correct. Everything is meaningless, except his philosophy that states that Everything is meaningless. Somehow he expects us to take his dodge of the great questions of human existence as an answer.

Camus' protagonist in The Stranger is a simple Nihilist, an unwilling Fatalistic idealist who only articulates his worldview when backed into a corner by society. In the Myth of Sisyphus, Camus writes, "The absurd man does nothing for the eternal... He situates himself in relation to time. He takes his place in it. That revolt of the flesh is the Absurd... That denseness and strangeness of the world is The absurd." Meursault does exactly this. His murder is not pre-meditated at all; nothing in his life is pre-meditated. He is the product of his environment and does not care to be any other way. He is a Nietzsche's end-state; a life lived with the knowledge, the fanatical uninspected dogma, that all is worthless.

Camus plagiarized much of the character development from The Adolescent's character Arkady Dolgoruky for The Stranger, just like Nietzsche ironically pilfered his conceptualizations from Dostoevsky's anti-Nihilism characters before Camus. Dostoevsky still perfectly predicted the philosophy of both of them and responded to it a century before. And neither have provided an adequate response to Dostoevsky's powerful and prophetic refutation of Nihilism.

Meursault is a simplified, white-washed human, the personification of the Absurd Man Camus sketches in The Myth of Sisyphus, which is a re-molding of Nietzsche's superman. Mersault and Raskolnikov are both Nihilists without knowing it; sociopathic tendencies abound, and moral relativism is a given in their self-awareness. He finds himself existing without ever asking to be; he feels life moving around him and is not aware of his own agency. The psychological portraiture Camus creates here is not faithful to human consciousness. No one is so one-sided and monocolor. C&P is a masterpiece of psychological portraiture because of how accurate it is; it maps the dynamic universe of the human mind and how these internal environments determine external actions. The Stranger does no such thing; it is not even an accurate picture of a sociopath, let alone an average person, even one who leans towards Nihilism. We are naturally concerned about those around us; we naturally ponder the nature of the universe, even if only within our emotions, but the Nihilist of Meursault is synthetic. He is the creation of powerful European privilege and vain-glory; of French egotism and cowardice.

Meursault really only knows himself from how others see him. He feels the hate of the jury; he knows they condemn him, and it affects him, but he refuses to think about why. When demanded to give account for his crime, he does not come to the conclusion that it was his faulty ideology, like Raskolnikov does, but shouts, "the sun made me do it!". This refusal to do any kind of self-analysis is a hallmark of Nihilism, and really, Atheism in general.

Camus states that mass-murder really isn't a big deal. He writes that the Absurd man "argues that Nihilism does not endorse evil behavior, but restores an ambivalence to it as the consequences are all the same for all actions." When the murder kneels in awful dread at the blood on his hands, Camus does not do so much as hand him a tissue. When humanity faced it's darkest hours in the Holocaust, Camus simply shrugged. Nihilism, It's 19th and 20th centuries as much as these modern manifestations, does not care about the well-being of humanity. Camus agrees with Dost that Nihilism (honest Atheism in its fully realized form) leads to the death of the individual. But to the Absurd Man, this horrible, empty death is somehow beautiful.

In the Myth, Camus describes Meursault's conclusions: "He recognizes the struggle, does not absolutely scorn reason, and admits the irrational. This he again embraces in a single glance all of the data of experience, and he is little inclined to leap before knowing. He knows simply that in that alert awareness there is no further place for hope." Meursault's murder of a random person does not bother him even a little bit. There is no remorse, no repentance, no change of any kind. Mersault says, "I opened myself to the gentle indifference of the world. Finding it so much like myself – so like a brother, really- I felt that I had been happy and that I was happy again." And this is Camus' dogma of depravity; murder, racism, sexism, even rape is not wrong, and there is no reason anyone should have remorse about doing these things. Do what you want for whatever reason you want; this is the heart of Nihilism preserved in Absurdism.

Camus is certainly not popular due to his philosophic or intellectual merits. He can only speak to edgy hedonists who are looking to justify their self-described "rebel" lifestyle, although these non-conformists inevitably all end up identical in their refusal to take moral and ethical questions seriously. The philosophy of Camus is poorly intellectualized Hedonism.

Camus asks us to believe that apathy towards others –towards Everything- and living in complete egotism is what it means to be human. He believes hope is the enemy. I dogmatically disagree. Chesterton wrote about how Nietzsche' philosophy, so perfectly captured by Camus in The Stranger, is the death of what it means to be human:

"Nietzsche's Superman [Ideal human] is cold and friendless. Achilles is so foolishly fond of his friend that he slaughters armies in the agony of his bereavement. Mr. Shaw's sad Caesar says in his desolate pride, "He who has never hoped can never despair." The Man-God of old answers from his awful hill, "Was ever sorrow like unto my sorrow?" A great man is not a man so strong that he feels less than other men; he is a man so strong that he feels more. And when Nietzsche says, "A new commandment I give to you, 'be hard,'" he is really saying, "A new commandment I give to you, 'be dead.'" Sensibility [emotional response to meaning] is the definition of life." (Heretics, 1905)

What a flawless description of Meursault. Becoming The Absurd Man is the death of one's humanity; Meursault died long before he saw the guillotine.

I have never read anything that addresses moral questions so flippantly and egotistically. The pedantic dribble of a man who's never taken the existential questions at the root of the human condition seriously, but somehow has the motivation to explain his non-answers to others. In fact, he does the exact opposite of taking moral questions seriously: he reverse-engineers his morality by trying to ideologically justify his darkest urges. His logic is "I like doing A, B, and C, so I need to find a philosophy that fits how I want to live." I fail to see a difference between Camus' moral logic and the pedophile's down the street.

And like his character Mersault, Camus deliberately ignores questions that make him uncomfortable or contradict his a priori assumptions, and he admits as much. This is the mark of the modern world; willful and selective ignorance under the guise of sensual presence and focuses on the here and now. In The Adolescent, Dostoevsky's character Dolgoruky does the exact same thing; he refuses to engage alternative viewpoints in order to prevent having to seriously think about his philosophic positions, which are ultimately based in carnal desires. And once again, Camus does not answer the arguments of his philosophic precursors, he just repeats old and thoroughly debunked arguments like a broken record.

-Camus' Suicide of Humanity-

"The only question that matters" to Camus receives no discernible answer other than a closeted Hedonism. "Choosing to be happy" in a sense Camus means it is to choose egotism and Hedonism covered in a thin pseudo-intellectual wrapping. To say that life is worth living with any weight requires divergence from The Absurd; Camus is unwilling to do this, and so his belief that life is worth living remains without foundation. He never gives a clear reason why life should be chosen over death, why one should choose happiness over misery, only poetic soliloquy. He repeatedly states that there is no reason that life is a better choice than death because everything is inherently meaningless. If you are looking for a reason why the godless and egotistic life is worth living, Camus does not provide an answer to this original question he sets out to answer. The Myth of Sisyphus, failing to be consistent with the philosophy it espouses, is devoid of anything real.

Camus is revered in the secular west for reasons that baffle me. I cannot find a single original thought nor internal consistency in his cockamamie presuppositionalist French version of Nihilism. I can only explain his popularity by pointing out his audience is the 'vague modern' who has never read Dostoevsky nor Kierkegaard, and wants a simple and dismissive explanation of them so that they don't have to think for themselves. They want an excuse to "live in the moment" (read: avoid moral agency) and never have to engage in painful self-reflection and deal with the darkness they find within themselves or struggle with any of the Ancient questions. Absurdism provides this escape. The watered-down semi-Nihilism of Camus and Bukowski is much easier to swallow than the pure and consistent Nihilism of Nietzsche. To the idea of Camus being considered a good, or even legitimate Philosopher; I say the Emperor has no clothes. He is a dogmatist, and a half-baked bigoted one at that.

I went line-by-line through his works: not one sentence I had not already read in Kierkegaard and Dostoevsky (all published a century before he was even born). This is not hyperbole; he plagiarized every single thought. Only those who have never read Kierkegaard, Dostoevsky, Nietzsche, and Hemmingway before reading Camus could be led into the idea he was an original thinker or a thinker by any measure; all genius in his works are scavenged directly from them.

He relies on the emotional resonance of words to create a sense of profundity; but there is nothing eternal or transcendent here; only thinly intellectualized Hedonism. ( )
  tnewcomb | Jun 5, 2020 |
I can so easily love this novel. I can so easily hate this novel. There's the paradox. But then, the tale itself straddles the minimalistic line inhabiting what could be a sociopath, a man suffering profound ennui or apathy, or... simply any one of us.

I could say the novel is, as the author first states, a philosophy or meaninglessness, of absolute gentle disregard. Or I could say this is a tale of a man who is worn down to nothingness and can't be bothered to evoke a single emotion despite his mother dying or being asked by a woman to marry her. Or, for that matter, when he kills a man, and then, because the sun was in his eyes and he wasn't sure he did the job right, he put four extra bullets in the man. It's logical. So is his treatment of his mother, putting her in a home and not bothering to cry at her funeral, or commenting on the meaningless of marriage. He's not really involved in anything.

He's a tourist. Or he's abnegating everything.

I'm very disturbed by reading this. I'm also thrilled by the conclusion, that all this personal horror leads to profound existentialism. In effect, he welcomes the whole world with the same honor that it has shown him.

One could say that he and the world both flip each other off.

After that trial, I can't really blame him. ( )
  bradleyhorner | Jun 1, 2020 |
Showing 1-5 of 337 (next | show all)
It is quite a trick to write of life & death, as Camus does, in terms of an almost total social and moral vacuum. He may get philosophical satisfaction from it. Most readers will call it philosophic doodling.
added by Shortride | editTime (May 20, 1946)
 
"The Stranger,” a novel of crime and punishment by Albert Camus, published today, should touch off in this country a renewed burst of discussion about the young French writers who are at the moment making more unusual literary news than the writers of any other country.
 

» Add other authors (61 possible)

Author nameRoleType of authorWork?Status
Camus, AlbertAuthorprimary authorall editionsconfirmed
Bree, GermaineEditorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Brenner, Hans GeorgTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Cohen, Marc J.Designersecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Davis, JonathanNarratorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Dunwoodie, PeterIntroductionsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Gilbert, StuartTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Goyert, GeorgTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Hall, BarnabyPhotographersecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Laredo, JamesTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Laredo, JosephTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Lionni, LeoCover designersecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Lynnes, Carlos, Jr.Editorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Mitchell, SusanArt directorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Morriën, AdriaanTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Stolpe, JanTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Urculo, EduardoIllustratorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Valente, José ÁngelTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Ward, MatthewTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Watkins, LiselotteCover artistsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Yentus, HelenCover designersecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Zevi, AlbertoTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed

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Mother died today. (Stuart Gilbert translation)
Maman died today. (Matthew Ward translation)
Aujourd'hui, maman est morte. Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas.
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And I, too, felt ready to start life all over again. It was if that great rush of anger had washed me clean, emptied me of hope, and, gazing up at the dark sky spangled with its signs and stars, for the first time, the first, I laid my heart open to the benign indifference of the universe. To feel it so like myself, indeed, so brotherly, made me realize that I'd been happy, and that I was happy still.
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Pubblicato nel 1942, "Lo straniero" è un classico della letteratura contemporanea: protagonista è Meursault, un modesto impiegato che vive ad Algeri in uno stato di indifferenza, di estraneità a se stesso e al mondo. Un giorno, dopo un litigio, inesplicabilmente Meursault uccide un arabo. Viene arrestato e si consegna, del tutto impassibile, alle inevitabili conseguenze del fatto - il processo e la condanna a morte - senza cercare giustificazioni, difese o menzogne. Meursault è un eroe "assurdo", e la sua lucida coscienza del reale gli permette di giungere attraverso una logica esasperata alla verità di essere e di sentire.
(piopas)
Haiku summary
Je suis étranger.
Aujourd'hui, maman est morte.
Et je ne pleure pas.

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3 editions of this book were published by Penguin Australia.

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