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The book begins with an introduction of the very basic terminology - propositions, premises, and conclusions. It might sound very naive to start this low, but it helped me to refer back to the precise definitions of these words while reading through the rest of the chapters.

Written in plain and simple language, the book covers a breadth of concepts from categorization of fallacies to Venn diagrams to necessary and sufficient conditions. Some of these were new to me while others were a pleasant revival. The exercises and puzzles throughout the book reinforce your understanding of what you just read.

Most of the book concentrates on deductive and inductive reasoning and the author did an excellent job in convincing that they were most crucial components of any logical discussion. I found the last few chapters - Analogical Reasoning through Science and Hypothesis, very interesting. However the chapter on Probability could be better by discussing more real-world scenarios. ( )

When one of his audience said, “Convince me that logic is useful,” he said,

Would you have me demonstrate it?

“Yes.”

Well, then, must I not use a deomonstrative argument?

And, when the other agreed, he said, How then shall you know if I impose upon you? And when the man had no answer, he said, You see how you yourself admit that logic is necessary, if without it you are not even able to learn this much — whether it is necessary or not. — Discourses of Epictetus

Dedication

This book is dedicated to my mother and father [Dedication to the 5th ed.]

We dedicate this eleventh edition of Introduction to Logic to our children David M. Copi, Thomas R. Copi, William A. Copi, Margaret R Copi, Jaclyn Z. Cohen, Noah J. Cohen

First words

There are obvious benefits to be gained from the study of logic: heightened ability to express ideas clearly and concisely, increased skill in defining one's terms, enlarged capacity to formulate arguments rigorously and to analyze them critically. But the greatest benefit, in my judgment, is the recognition that reason can be applied in every aspect of human affairs. [From the "Preface" to Irving M. Copi's Introduction to Logic, 5th ed. (1953/1978: vii)]

1.1 What Is Logic?

Logic is the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish good (correct) from bad (incorrect) reasoning. This definition must not be taken to imply that only the student of logic can reason well or correctly. To say so would be as mistaken as to say that to run well requires studying the physics and physiology involved in that activity. Some excellent athletes are quite ignorant of the complex processes that go on inside themselves when they perform. And, needless to say, the somewhat elderly professors who know most about such things would perform very poorly were they to risk their dignity on the athletic field. Even given the same basic muscular and nervous apparatus, the person who knows might not surpass the “natural athlete.” [From "Introduction", chapter 1 of Irving M. Copi's Introduction to Logic, 5th ed. (1953/1978: 3–4)]

Quotations

Last words

Let us consider just one more aspect of the doubling technique. Suppose some one wants to win just a single dollar, which means that she will play until she wins just once or else goes broke. With this more modest aim, what is the probable value of her investment? If heads appears on the first toss, the return is $4 (the $1 won and the original stake of $3) and having won her dollar, the woman stops playing. If tails appears on the first toss, $2 is bet on the second. If heads appears, the return is $4, and the player quits with her winnings. If tails appears, the return is $0, and the player quits because she has lost all her money. There are only these three possible outcomes, the first of which has a probability of ½, the second ¼, and the third ¼. Such a player, following such a strategy, is three times as likely to win as to lose. But of course she can lose three times as much as she can win by this method. The expected value is (½ × $4) + (¼ × $4) + (¼ × $0) = $3. The expectation is not increased at all by following the doubling technique. The chances of winning are increased, just as by betting on more numbers at chuck-a-luck or roulette, but the amount which can be won decreases rapidly enough to keep the expected value constant. [From "Probability", chaoter 14 of Irving M. Copi's Introduction to Logic, 5th ed. (1953/1978: 528)]

Dedicated to the memory of Irving M. Copi, the twelfth edition of Introduction to Logic retains its breadth of coverage, while breaking new ground with a compelling new design and inclusion of new pedagogic features to help students in their study of logic. This new edition goes further than any previous edition-or competing logic text-in assisting students with their mastery of logic! NEW to Introduction to Logic, Twelfth Edition!* New material-Additional coverage of conditional proofs; new category for fallacies of defective induction; separated treatment of classic syllogistic logic and modern symbolic logic *"VISUAL LOGIC" feature-Clear and vivid illustrations provided to clarify challenging logic topics *Marginal definitions-Helps students define terms while reading *Summary tables-Over 30 "OVERVIEWS" to help students review material at a glance *New student supplemet-Available to package with new texts, LogicNotes with Practice Problems provides a Notebook with numerous practice problems and solutions (Package ISBN: 013-163729-0) eLogic-Prentice Hall's new CD-ROM-based logic tutorial Prentice Hall has revised its tutorial to provide students with over 800 exercises, drawn from the text, plus the tools students need to solve logic problems. Students can work problems, including diagramming arguments, creating Venn diagrams, constructing truth tables. And now students can build and check proofs! See the walk-through in this book or visit www.prenhall.com/philosophy for more information!

(retrieved from Amazon Thu, 12 Mar 2015 18:08:20 -0400)

Written in plain and simple language, the book covers a breadth of concepts from categorization of fallacies to Venn diagrams to necessary and sufficient conditions. Some of these were new to me while others were a pleasant revival. The exercises and puzzles throughout the book reinforce your understanding of what you just read.

Most of the book concentrates on deductive and inductive reasoning and the author did an excellent job in convincing that they were most crucial components of any logical discussion. I found the last few chapters - Analogical Reasoning through Science and Hypothesis, very interesting. However the chapter on Probability could be better by discussing more real-world scenarios. ( )