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The Epic of Gilgamesh by Anonymous
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The Epic of Gilgamesh

by Anonymous, Sîn-lēqi-unninni (Editor)

Other authors: See the other authors section.

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(This review refers to the Andrew George translation) Probably the most scholarly translation of The Epic of Gilgamesh I’ve read so far. Among other things, this includes the “standard” version (He Who Saw The Deep, with authorship (well, more likely editorship) attributed to Sinliqeunninni); the Old Babylonian version (Surpassing All Other Kings); miscellaneous bits and pieces in Hittitte, Hurrian, and Ugaritic; and all five Sumerian poems mentioning Gilgamesh (AFAIK this is the only book that includes all five poems in English). The nice part about this is other translations generally start with the Sinliqeunninni “standard” version, and then make up missing parts from the others, or simply treat the Sinliqeunninni as “the” epic (such as the John Gardner version reviewed earlier). There’s something to be said for this as a literary method, but the more or less literal translation of the texts given here has considerable value for elucidating just how much is known and not known about ancient Mesopotamian culture.


As an example, the following line appears in the Sumerian poem “The Death of Gilgamesh” (The god Enlil is answering Gilgamesh’s request for eternal life):


“The bane of mankind is thus come, I have told you,
What was fixed when your navel-cord was cut, I have told you.”


A poetic translation might be “Your fate was determined when you were born”, but the more literal translation raises a whole bunch of questions: Did the Sumerians attach a special significance to cutting the umbilical cord? Were you perhaps not considered “born” until the cord was cut? Was there a certain fashion or time to cut the cord that could alter Fate? Or is it just what it appears to be – a poetic way of saying “When you were born”?


The supplemental material is very beneficial; for example, for all these years I’ve been pronouncing Gilgamesh and Enkidu wrong (GILgahmesh, ENkeydew), but it turns out the accent is on the second syllable and internal syllables have long vowels (gilGAYmesh, enKIdew).


However, there are a few things I’m a little curious about. For example, most other authors say the temple courtesan that seduces Enkidu is never named; “Shamat” is a title; Here “Shamat” is her name (which turns out to mean “well-endowed”). Also, this work doesn’t bother to explain exactly what Shamat was, simply referring to her as a “prostitute”, while her actual status is a priestess of Ishtar who has sex as one of her religious duties. In the Sumerian poem, titled In those days but usually referred to as “Gilgamesh and the Netherworld”, Andrew George describes the objects that have fallen into the Netherworld as a “ball and mallet” while other authors call them a “drum and drumstick” or simply admit they have no clue what they are and refer to them by the original Sumerian names. (“Ball and mallet” is based on other evidence that Gilgamesh enjoyed a Sumerian game which seems to have been a sort of full-body-contact croquet. In fact, some authors have suggested that the start of the epic, where the young men and women of Uruk complain to the gods that Gilgamesh is wearing them out with sexual demands, actually refers (at least as far as the young men are concerned) to Gilgamesh forcing them to play Sumerian croquet until they drop from exhaustion).


A plus is an appendix with a description of what’s involved in translation. In the original Akkadian:


in-di it-ta-di a-na ti-ik-ki den-ki-dù
NIN.DINGIR.RAmeš il-qa-a li-qu-tu
ù DUMU.MUNUS.DINGIRmeš ú-rab-ba-a tar-bu-ta
a-na-ku den-ki-dù a-na ah-hu-ti dgiš-gím-maš li-dam-me-eq-šu


The way this works is the stuff in capitals is Sumerian ideograms; something like modern Japanese occasionally uses Chinese characters, Akkadian uses Sumerian for some words. The superscripts (don’t know if this UBB code works here) are determinatives that are not actually pronounced.


What’s done next is the Sumerian is translated into Akkadian and Akkadian syllables are combined into words:


Indī ittadi ana tikki Enkīdu
ugbakkāti ilqâ liqûtu
u mārāt-ilī urabbâ tarbûta
anāku Enkīdu sha arammu elqâ ana mārutū
Enkīdu ana ahhūti Gilgāmesh lidammeqshu


(You know, reading that sounds a little like the Black Speech of Mordor.)


And finally Akkadian to English:


She placed the symbols on Enkidu’s neck.

The priestesses took in the foundling,

And the Divine Daughters brought up the foster-child

Enkidu, whom I love, I take for my son,

Enkidu in brotherhood, Gilgamesh shall favor him!


Fortunately, we don’t get the entire text this way.


Recommended for anyone interested; I would certainly read another, more “poetic” version if possible but if you can only read one this is the choice. ( )
5 vote setnahkt | Dec 21, 2017 |
I can never understand why nobody has ever made a movie out of Gilgamesh. It’s got everything: sex, violence, buddies, monsters, death, and special effects.


Quick plot summary: Gilgamesh is King of Uruk, and two-thirds divine (demonstrating that the Sumerian pantheon was quadraploid). He throws his weight around, “oppressing” the young men and women. The gods respond by creating Enkidu, a “natural” man. A hunter discovers Enkidu and is frightened – Enkidu apparently looks a little like Sasquatch. The hunter is advised to get the help of a temple prostitute, who seduces Enkidu and civilizes him. Now being civilized, Enkidu naturally wants to throw his weight around, and resolves to go and beat up Gilgamesh. They fight, smashing through buildings, knocking down doors, and generally kicking and gouging in the mud and the blood and the beer. And become the best of friends as a result. The buddies in buddy movies have to go on to bigger adventures, so Gilgamesh and Enkidu take on Humbaba, a sort of demon-type guy who guards the cedar forests. After considerable effort, they do. The love goddess Ishtar becomes enamored of Gilgamesh, and offers to mess around; Gilgamesh refuses. The outraged Ishtar borrows the Bull of Heaven and sends it after Gilgamesh; after considerable effort, he and Enkidu defeat it. This is too much for the gods, and they order Enkidu’s death. After considerable effort, he dies, and Gilgamesh is heartbroken. He resolves not to die himself, and goes seeking the only immortal human, Ut-napishtim, who survived a global flood. After considerable effort, he finds Ut-napishtim, who sadly informs Gilgamesh that his immortality was a one-time deal; however, there’s a plant growing on the bottom of the ocean that might help. After considerable effort, Gilgamesh recovers the plant, only to have it eaten by a snake. Gilgamesh returns to Uruk sadder but wiser.


Gilgamesh appears as an actual King of Uruk in Sumerian King-Lists, which means that the Sumerians thought he was a real person. There are some Sumerian poems featuring him and Enkidu, although they differ markedly from the latter Akkadian epics. One of the most complete, Gilgamesh and Aka, appears in Thorkild Jacobsen’s The Harps That Once…. It’s pretty cryptic, probably part of a longer epic that the readers (or more likely listeners) were assumed to be familiar with, but basically describes a battle between Enkidu and Aka, in which Enkidu is victorious.


The most readily available academic translation is probably that of N. K. Sandars; The Epic of Gilgamesh; she gives a long and informative introduction. The discovery of the Gilgamesh epic is something of an epic itself; Austen Layard, one of those dilettante amateur English archaeologists/looters, stumbled across the ruins of Nineveh in 1839, dug up a load of tablets, and shipped them back to the British Museum. Some years later Henry Rawlinson, a British “political agent” in Mesopotamia, found a trilingual inscription (Old Persian, Elamite, Babylonian) on the side of a mountain in Behistan and began the process of deciphering the cuneiform languages. In 1872, George Smith at the British Museum was grimly plowing through the mass of accumulated tablets (most of which are land titles, contracts, and other not particularly interesting documents), when he came across one that reported a man so favored by the gods that when they decided to destroy the world by flood he was allowed to build a boat, fill it with pairs of animals, and ride it out. That struck a chord with Smith, since it was awfully similar to something he’d first learned about in Sunday School. He was reportedly so excited by the discovery that he took off his clothes. At any rate the British public quickly raised a large sum so Smith could go back and find the rest of the tablets. Well, the whole site was littered with countless tablets and fragments thereof, so Smith naturally assumed that he would never find the missing parts and could devote the subscribed money to general archaeology; it’s anticlimactic to say he found the rest of the Epic on his third day at Nineveh. Since then, of course, more and more fragments and whole tablets have turned up.


The Sandars translation is in prose; it gives the story as a straightforward narrative, without any omissions or embellishment (although sometimes combining different tablets for completeness. It’s probably the best for the casual reader.


The Alexander Heidel version, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, is less accessible but more scholarly. It’s been in print for a long time – the book is reproduced directly from a typewritten manuscript by photo-offset. Heidel includes variants, lacunae, interpolations, and other standards scholarly forms; that makes the book much more difficult to read as a narrative but better at providing the details (the naughty bits, describing Enkidu and the temple prostitute, are in Latin).


An interesting recent version is ghIlghameS: A Klingon Translation, by Roger Cheesbro, reportedly inscribed on pieces of a crashed starship hull by an unknown Klingon marooned on an asteroid. I actually find the translation quite good; the introduction notes that “The Klingon preference for terse utterances is well suited to the Akkadian poetic line” and it carries the feel of a bardic recitation rather than a written text. The Klingon translator, of course, had to make some adaptations – substituting appropriate Klingon fauna for lions, snakes and scorpions. The largest change is in the Humbaba episode; in the Akkadian original, Enkidu appears to display cowardice and tries to dissuade Gilgamesh from going after the demon. There’s some missing text and a short while later Enkidu has bucked up and fights Humbaba bravely alongside Gilgamesh. Needless to say, a Klingon couldn’t put up with even temporary cowardice and the episode s glossed over. The Klingon also makes an excusable mistake, translating “Shamhat” as the name of the temple prostitute, rather than her title. The Akkadian word šamhātu means something like “holy courtesan”; that is, a temple prostitute for the upper classes.


I’m of two minds about Stephen Mitchell’s Gilgamesh: a New English Version. Mitchell has made a career out of poetic “translations” of various texts, including the Bhagavad Gita and the Tao Te Ching. He does not claim to read any of the original languages; he reworks previous translations. To his credit, he calls this a “version” rather than a “translation”; several Akkadian scholars have written critical reviews on Amazon and elsewhere. That being said, it’s not really that bad; a fairly well flowing narrative. Interestingly, Mitchell also uses “Shamhat” as a name for the temple courtesan. I suppose it doesn’t really change the sense of the text. One of the controversial and criticized things Mitchell does is remove much of the repetition. For example, on of the things Gilgamesh has to do on the way to visit Ut-napishtim is run through the tunnel the sun uses to get from the west to the east. In the original, this is described as


"One double-hour he traveled

Dense is the darkness and there is no light

Neither what lies ahead of him or what lies behind him does it permit him to see.

Two double-hour he traveled

Dense is the darkness and there is no light

Neither what lies ahead of him or what lies behind him does it permit him to see.

Three double-hour he traveled

Dense is the darkness and there is no light

Neither what lies ahead of him or what lies behind him does it permit him to see.
"

So we get the idea what Gilgamesh will be doing in the fourth, fifth, sixth and subsequent double-hours. Mitchell cuts this in half; it would make boring reading otherwise. However, the original epic was almost certainly recited rather than read, and repetition like this is commonly used to building tension during such a recitation. You can imagine the hearers becoming more and more excited as the storyteller changes the pitch and emphasis of his words with each repetition.


On a similar note, we have poet and ancient historian Derrek Hines’ Gilgamesh, rewritten in modern language – extremely modern language. For example, here’s a short description of Gilgamesh’s behavior toward the young women of Uruk in several different versions:


Heidel: “Gilgamesh leaves no virgin to her lover, the daughter of a warrior, the chosen of a noble!”


Sandars: “His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warrior’s daughter nor the wife of the noble.”


Klingon: “But his people cried out, saying ‘He is very fierce, he wrongs us’”


Mitchell: (Gilgamesh) “takes the girl from her mother and uses her, the warrior’s daughter, the young man’s bride”


Hines: “Pulls women like beer rings, grunts when puzzled. A bully. A jock. Perfecto.”


Thus, Hines may keep to the spirit of the original, but not the language. Nevertheless, I rather liked this one. If you have read several other versions, it’s refreshing; sort of like seeing Shakespeare set in modern dress.


Finally, we have an interesting variation: Bohuslav Martinů’s oratorio The Epic of Gilgamesh. This is sung in Slovakian (there’s an English translation provided in the CD notes). Listening to something like this in a language I didn’t understand was intriguing; I tried to figure out what part of the epic the music was quoting. The oratorio does not cover the complete epic – just the meeting of Gilgamesh and Enkidu, the death of Enkidu, and something that is not part of the canonical Akkadian epic at all (although it was translated to Akkadian), the Sumerian poem “Enkidu in the Underworld” from the Sumerian Gilgamesh cycle. I suppose since the originals were probably recited or sung, it’s a full circle. ( )
1 vote setnahkt | Dec 10, 2017 |
(This review refers to the John Gardner/John Maier edition). This is an interesting take on Gilgamesh. Texts relating to Gilgamesh are known from Sumerian, Akkadian (with Assyrian, neo-Assyrian, Old Babylonian, Ugaritic and Neobabylonian variants), and Hittite; date over a time span of about 2000 years; and come from places as far apart as Bogazkhoy, Meggido, and Susa. There is no complete version in any language; what scholars traditionally do is take the bits and pieces, regardless of language and date, and string them together into a continuous narrative.


What novelist John Gardner and archaeologist John Maier have done instead is take a single version (albeit the most complete one) and translated it as a single text, without reference to other versions (except in footnotes). This is the Sîn-leqi-unninnĩ version, after the Assyrian priest who transcribed it for the library of Asshurbanipal. The main value here is you can see exactly how much is interpolated in other translations; of secondary interest is Gardner’s literary interpretation. Other translations bowdlerize the encounters between Enkidu and the temple courtesan and between Gilgamesh, Enkidu, Ishtar and the Bull of Heaven; Gardner and Maier go for an “Akkadian You Never Learned in School” tactic and are rather more graphic. Since I don’t know a word of Akkadian (well, not quite – “gypsum” is Akkadian) I have no idea whether the text actually justifies this, but I assume Maier wouldn’t allow Gardner to get too fanciful. There’s a long appendix which details translation problems and the approach the authors used.


I wouldn’t get this for your first version of Gilgamesh because the gaps in the text diminish readability but it’s definitely valuable if you’ve already read a more traditional version. ( )
1 vote setnahkt | Dec 9, 2017 |
გმირი რომელიც უკვდავებას ეძებს კლასიკური არქეტიპია, რომელიც უძველესი დროიდან ჩნდება კულტურაში, ზღაპრებში ეპოსებში, ალბათ მას მერე რაც ადამიანმა სხვადასხვა ამბების შეთხზვა დაიწყო. და ჩემი აზრით ერთ-ერთი მნიშვნელოვანი ადგილი უკავია კაცობრიობის ცნობიერში, რადგან გამოხატავს ეგზისტენციალური ხასიათის კითხვებს: რატომ ვცხოვრობთ და რატომ ვკვდებით. როდესაც გილგამეშის ძმობილი და მეგობარი ენქიდუ კვდება, მასაც იპყრობს სიკვდილის შიში და იწყებს უკვდავების ძიებას, საინტერესო და მოულოდნელი ფილოსოფიური სიღრმე ელის მკითხველს ამ უძველესი ეპოსისგან, რადგან აქ ისე არ ვითარდება მოვლენები როგორც ძალიან ბევრ საგმირო ეპოსში და ზღაპარში, სადაც გმირი პოულობს უკვდავების წყაროს ან სხვა საშუალებას, როდესაც გმირები ბოლოს ყოველთვის გამარჯვებულები ბრუნდებიან. აქ გილგამეში ეჯახება გარდაუვალ მტკიცე რეალობას რომ "აუცდენელია უწყალო სიკვდილი, განა სამუდამოდ ვაშენებთ სახლებს? განა სამუდამოდ ირტყმის ბეჭედი?"

მიუხედავად იმისა რომ არსებობს გამონაკლისი, დიდ წარღვნას გადარჩენილი გმირი უთანაფშითი, ვინც წარღვნისას ხომალდი ააგო და გადაურჩა კატასტროფას. შემდგომ კი ღმერთებმა უთანაფშითის კურთხევით ერთგვარად მოინანიეს თითქოს ის რაც კაცობრიობას დამართეს და მარადიული სუნთქვა აჩუქეს მას. მიუხედავად იმისა რომ გილგამეში ორი მესამედი ღმერთია და მხოლოდ ერთი მესამედი კაცი. სიკვდილი მაინც გარდაუვალია, ღმერთებს არ შეუძლიათ კიდევ ერთი გამონაკლისის დაშვება. ბედი კი იმდენად სასტიკია რომ სრულიად უაზროდ გილგამეში იმ ბალახსაც კარგავს რომელიც უთანაფშითმა გამოატანა სიჭაბუკის დასაბრუნებლად. ამ ბალახს გველი იპარავს და კანს იცვლის. მოკლედ: გმირებიც ჩვეულებვრივი ადამიანები არიან, ისინიც მარცხდებიან, სიკვდილი კი გარდაუვალია თვით ორი მესამედი ღმერთებისთვისაც.

არ ვიცი რამდენად ხშირია ასეთი გაკვეთილი ეპოსებში და ლეგენდებში, მაგრამ ერთი ქართული ზღაპარი გამახსენდა, სადაც გმირი ეძებს უკვდავების წყაროს, ყველგან მიდის სადაც კი შეიძლება წასვლა, ცხრა მთას და ცხრა ზღვას შემოივლის და მაინც ვერ პოულობს, მერე კი სამ დღეს ატარებს რომელიღაც ქალღმერთთან და ამ სამ დღეში დედამიწაზე გადის ათასი წელი. შინ დაბრუნებულს აღარავინ ხვდება ცოცხალი ვისაც იცნობდა და ხვდება რა საშინელებაა უკვდავება. ( )
1 vote Misha.Kaulashvili | Aug 22, 2016 |
I am taking on the subject of Babylonian Civilization this summer. To get started, I'm rereading the oldest story ever written by humans. How old? Try 4000 years old. Not only is it the oldest, but it is written in a dead language and it was buried for a couple thousand years before some British archaeologists dug it up in the Iraqi desert in the mid 1800's. It took another 50 years before it was translated into English.

I've read an adaptation of Gilgamesh before but never a scholarly translation that was directly translated from the cuneiform tablets. Andrew George's translation is considered one of the standards and I found it very readable even though there are gaps here and there to represent where the tablets are broken. In a sense, this made the work of translation more apparent and interesting. In fact, there is a whole system in place that emphasizes when and where certainty and speculation are used in the story. Italics and brackets are all over the place, but once you figure out the code, it adds a lot to the reading experience.

In addition to the standard Gilgamesh tablets, there are older Sumerian tablets that are translated and included in this Penguin edition. The Sumerian tablets are older but translated from Sumerian and not Akkadian. They tend to be less standardized, with characters switching names or roles here and there. The notes help sort all this out. The introduction is also very interesting and helps lay some crucial groundwork for placing this story in context to the history of the Babylonian Empire.

If you are like me and love Homer and all the other early epics you will want to familiarize yourself with this most excellent story. Just as interesting is the story of its discovery. Check out The Buried Book by David Damrosch to learn more about that. If you want to learn more about the ancient history of the area in audio format, check out Dan Carlin's podcast "Hardcore History -King of Kings" series. ( )
1 vote BenjaminHahn | May 24, 2016 |
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Author nameRoleType of authorWork?Status
Anonymousprimary authorall editionscalculated
Sîn-lēqi-unninniEditormain authorall editionsconfirmed
Burckhardt, GeorgTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Ferry, DavidTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Feyter, Theo deTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Gardner, JohnTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
George, AndrewTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Guidall, GeorgeNarratorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Hämeen-Anttila, JaakkoTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Henshaw, Richard A.Translatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Jastrow, MorrisEditorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Kantola, TainaTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Kapheim, ThomIllustratorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Kovacs, Maureen GalleryTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Maier, JohnTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Marks, John H.Afterwordsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Mason, HerbertTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Maul, Stefan M.Translatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Mitchell, StephenTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Muss-Arnolt, WilliamTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Pasco, RichardNarratorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Salonen, ArmasTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Sandars, N. K.Translatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Sandars, N.K.Introductionsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Schott, AlbertTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Vanstiphout, HermanTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Warring, LennartTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Westerman, FrankAfterwordsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Wyatt, Thomassecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
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Series (with order)
Canonical title
Original title
Alternative titles
Original publication date
People/Characters
Important places
Important events
Related movies
Awards and honors
Epigraph
Dedication
Für Lilian.
First words
I will proclaim to the world the deeds of Gilgamesh. ...

trans. N.K. Sandars (1960)
It is an old story
But one that can still be told
About a man who loved
And lost a friend to death
And learned he lacked the power
To bring him back to life.

trans. Mason (1972)
The Story
of him who knew the most of all men know;
who made the journey; heartbroken; reconciled;

who knew the way things were before the Flood,
the secret things, the mystery; who went

to the end of the earth, and over; who returned,
and wrote the story on a tablet of stone.

trans. Ferry (1992)
He who saw the Deep, the country's foundation,
    (who) knew . . . , was wise in all matters!
(Gilgamesh, who) saw the Deep, the country's foundation
   (who) knew . . . , was wise in all matters!

(He) . . . everywhere . . .
   and (learnt) of everything the sum of wisdom. 
He saw what was secret, discovered what was hidden. 
   he brought back a tale of before the Deluge.

trans. George (1999) 
He had seen everything, had experienced all emotions,
from exaltation to despair, had been granted a vision
into the great mystery, the secret places,
the primeval days before the Flood. ...

trans. Mitchell (2004)
Quotations
Last words
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Disambiguation notice
This work is any complete, unabridged translation of the Standard Version of The Epic of Gilgamesh. To quote the FAQ on combining - "A work brings together all different copies of a book, regardless of edition, title variation, or language." Translations of the Old Babylonian Versions should remain separate, as should translations of the early Sumerian Gilgamesh stories and poems from which the epic came to be.
Based on currently accepted LibraryThing convention, the Norton Critical Edition is treated as a separate work, ostensibly due to the extensive additional, original material included.
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N. K. Sandars's landmark translation of one of the first and greatest works of Western literature

Gilgamesh, King of Uruk, and his companion Enkidu are the only heroes to have survived from the ancient literature of Babylon, immortalized in this epic poem that dates back to the third millennium BC. Together they journey to the Spring of Youth, defeat the Bull of Heaven and slay the monster Humbaba. When Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh’s grief and fear of death are such that they lead him to undertake a quest for eternal life. A timeless tale of morality, tragedy and pure adventure, The Epic of Gilgamesh is a landmark literary exploration of man’s search for immortality.
N. K. Sandars’s lucid, accessible translation is prefaced by a detailed introduction that examines the narrative and historical context of the work. In addition, there is a glossary of names and a map of the Ancient Orient.

For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.
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Amazon.com Amazon.com Review (ISBN 014044100X, Paperback)

This edition provides a prose rendering of The Epic of Gilgamesh, the cycle of poems preserved on clay tablets surviving from ancient Mesopotamia of the third mi llennium B.C. One of the best and most important pieces of epic poetry from human history, predating even Homer's Iliad by roughly 1,500 years, the Gilgamesh epic tells of the various adventures of that hero-king, including his quest for immortality, and an account of a great flood similar in many details to the Old Testament's story of Noah. The translator also provides an interesting and useful introduction explaining much about the historical context of the poem and the archeological discovery of th e tablets.

(retrieved from Amazon Thu, 12 Mar 2015 18:19:36 -0400)

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The poems about the great King of Uruk are prefaced by notes on their historical and literary background

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Penguin Australia

2 editions of this book were published by Penguin Australia.

Editions: 014044100X, 0140449191

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