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American Psychological Association

Author of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

American Psychological Association is American P... Association (1). For other authors named American P... Association, see the disambiguation page.

American Psychological Association (1) has been aliased into American Psychological Association.

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Works by American Psychological Association

Works have been aliased into American Psychological Association.


Common Knowledge




PDFA1 | The precursor to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was published in 1929 as a seven-page article in Psychological Bulletin describing a “standard of procedure, to which exceptions would doubtless be necessary, but to which reference might be made in cases of doubt” (Bentley et al., 1929, p. 57). Since then, the scope and length of the Publication Manual have grown in response to the needs of researchers, students, and educators across the social and behavioral sciences, health care, natural sciences, humanities, and more; however, the spirit of the original authors’ intentions remains | To address changes in scholarly writing and publishing since the release of the sixth edition, we consulted many professional groups and experts (each recognized individually in the Editorial Staff and Contributors list) | Excellence in writing is critical for success in many academic and professional pursuits. APA Style is a set of guidelines for clear and precise scholarly communication that helps authors, both new and experienced, achieve excellence in writing. It is used by millions of people around the world in psychology and also in fields ranging from nursing to social work, communications to education, business to engineering, and other disciplines for the preparation of manuscripts for publication as well as for writing student papers, dissertations, and theses. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the authoritative resource for APA Style, and we are proud to deliver its seventh edition | Uniformity and consistency enable readers to (a) focus on the ideas being presented rather than formatting and (b) scan works quickly for keypoints, findings, and sources. Style guidelines encourage authors to fully disclose essential information and allow readers to dispense with minor distractions, such as inconsistencies or omissions in punctuation,
capitalization, reference citations, and presentation of statistics. When style works best, ideas flow logically, sources are credited appropriately, and papers are organized predictably and consistently. People are described using language that affirms their worth and dignity. Authors
plan for ethical compliance and report critical details of their research protocol to allow readers to evaluate findings and other researchers to potentially replicate the studies. Tables and figures present data in an engaging, consistent manner. Whether you use APA Style for a single class or throughout your career, we encourage you to recognize the benefits of a conscientious approach to writing. Although the guidelines span many areas and take time and practice to learn, we hope that they provide a balance of directiveness and flexibility and will eventually become second nature | (https://apastyle.apa.org) |


Table 2.1 Effective and Ineffective Paper Titles
Table 2.2 Examples of Author Bylines and Affiliations
Table 2.3 Format for the Five Levels of Heading in APA Style
Table 3.1 Quantitative Design Reporting Standards (JARS–Quant)
Table 3.2 Qualitative Design Reporting Standards (JARS–Qual)
Table 3.3 Mixed Methods Design Reporting Standards (JARS–Mixed)
Table 4.1 Recommended Verb Tenses in APA Style Papers
Table 6.1 Guide to Hyphenating Temporary Compound Terms
Table 6.2 Prefixes and Suffixes That Do Not Require Hyphens
Table 6.3 Compound Words That Require Hyphens
Table 6.4 Abbreviations for Common Units of Measurement
Table 6.5 Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols
Table 7.1 Basic Components of a Table
Table 7.2 Sample Demographic Characteristics Table
Table 7.3 Sample Properties of Study Variables Table
Table 7.4 Sample Meta-Analysis Summary Table
Table 7.5 Sample Summary of Complex Experimental Design Table
Table 7.6 Sample Descriptive Statistics for Study Measures Table
Table 7.7 Sample Chi-Square Analysis Table
Table 7.8 Sample Results of Several t Tests Table
Table 7.9 Sample a Priori or Post Hoc Comparisons Table
Table 7.10 Sample Correlation Table for One Sample
Table 7.11 Sample Correlation Table for Two Samples
Table 7.12 Sample Analysis of Variance Table (Option 1)
Table 7.13 Sample Analysis of Variance Table (Option 2)
Table 7.14 Sample Factor Analysis Table
Table 7.15 Sample Regression Table, Without Confidence Intervals
Table 7.16 Sample Regression Table, With Confidence Intervals in Brackets
Table 7.17 Sample Regression Table, With Confidence Intervals in Separate Columns
Table 7.18 Sample Hierarchical Multiple Regression Table
Table 7.19 Sample Model Comparison Table
Table 7.20 Sample Multilevel Model Comparison Table
Table 7.21 Sample Confirmatory Factor Analysis Model Comparison Table
Table 7.22 Sample Qualitative Table With Variable Descriptions
Table 7.23 Sample Qualitative Table Incorporating Quantitative
Table 7.24 Sample Mixed Methods Table
Table 8.1 Basic In-Text Citation Styles
Table 8.2 Examples of Direct Quotations Cited in the Text
Table 9.1 How to Create a Reference When Information Is Missing
Table 11.1 Key Differences Between APA Style References and Legal References
Table 11.2 Common Legal Reference Abbreviations
Table 12.1 Copyright Attribution Templates
Table 12.2 Example Copyright Attributions for Reprinted or Adapted Tables and Figures


Figure 2.1 Sample Professional Title Page
Figure 2.2 Sample Student Title Page
Figure 2.3 Sample Author Note
Figure 2.4 Use of Headings in a Sample Introduction
Figure 2.5 Format of Headings in a Sample Paper
Figure 3.1 Flowchart of Quantitative Reporting Standards to Follow Depending on Research Design
Figure 7.1 Basic Components of a Figure
Figure 7.2 Sample Bar Graph
Figure 7.3 Sample Line Graph
Figure 7.4 Sample Figure Showing the Flow of Participants
Through a Study Process
Figure 7.5 Sample CONSORT Flow Diagram
Figure 7.6 Sample Conceptual Model
Figure 7.7 Sample Structural Equation Model
Figure 7.8 Sample Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results Figure
Figure 7.9 Sample Path Model
Figure 7.10 Sample Qualitative Research Figure
Figure 7.11 Sample Mixed Methods Research Figure
Figure 7.12 Sample Illustration of Experimental Setup
Figure 7.13 Sample Illustration of Experimental Stimuli
Figure 7.14 Sample Map
Figure 7.15 Sample Scatterplot
Figure 7.16 Sample Multidimensional Scaling Figure
Figure 7.17 Sample Photograph
Figure 7.18 Sample Complex Multipanel Figure
Figure 7.19 Sample Event-Related Potential Figure
Figure 7.20 Sample fMRI Figure
Figure 7.21 Sample Display of Genetic Material (Physical Map)
Figure 8.1 Example of an Appropriate Level of Citation
Figure 8.2 Correspondence Between a Reference List Entry and an In-Text Citation
Figure 8.3 Example of Repeated Narrative Citations With the Year Omitted
Figure 8.4 Example of a Long Paraphrase With a Single In-Text Citation
Figure 8.5 Example of Repeated Citations Necessary to Clarify Sources
Figure 8.6 Example of Changes Made to a Direct Quotation
Figure 8.7 Example of Citations Omitted at the End of a Quotation
Figure 9.1 Example of Where to Find Reference Information for a Journal Article
Figure 9.2 Examples of the Order of Works in a Reference List
Figure 9.3 Sample Annotated Bibliography
Figure 9.4 Use of Asterisks to Indicate Studies Included in a Meta-Analysis
Figure 12.1 Flowchart of Manuscript Progression From Submission to Publication

PAPERS pg. 615


INDEX pg. 634
… (more)
5653735991n | 39 other reviews | Dec 26, 2023 |
I plan on holding a book-burning as soon as I am done with my Master's. There will be a new edition by then most likely. Tell me, why oh why is there no instruction on how to cite a simple web page in there? This book is the bane of my existence at this time.
imabookwyrm | 39 other reviews | Jan 10, 2022 |

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