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Marie-Thérèse Charlotte was born at the Château de Versailles, the eldest child of the French King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette and named for her maternal grandmother, the empress of Austria. She was known by the courtesy title "Madame Royale," and spent her childhood at the court. During the French Revolution, she was arrested and imprisoned with her family. After her parents and aunt were killed and her brother was taken away, she was left alone for a time in the medieval Temple prison in Paris. At age 17, she was released in a prisoner exchange and sent into exile in the Austrian Empire. In 1799, she married her first cousin Louis Antoine d’Artois, son of her paternal uncle, the future Charles X, and became duchesse d’Angoulême. She returned to France in 1814 when the Bourbon monarchy was restored. In 1824, Charles X ascended the throne, and she and her husband were named dauphin and dauphine de France. However, they had to flee the Revolution of July 1830 and went into exile in Great Britain and then in Europe. Technically, Marie-Thérèse was queen of France for about 20 minutes after the abdication of her father-in-law, but the crown was passed to Louis Philippe I, King of the French.
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