Amalia, Lady Fleming, was born Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas (alternate spelling Coutsouris) in Constantinople, now Istanbul. She moved to Greece and studied medicine at the University of Athens, specializing in bacteriology. During the Axis Occupation of Greece in World War II, she participated in the resistance movement, for which she was imprisoned. After the war, she won a scholarship for further medical studies in England. There she worked with Sir Alexander Fleming at St. Mary's Hospital, London. They married in 1953; he died less than two years later. Lady Fleming returned to Greece in 1963 and helped organize opposition to the military dictatorship known as the Junta of the Colonels that seized power in 1967. She became closely associated with the Panhellenic Liberation Movement, a leftist organization started by future Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou. She was imprisoned by the regime, but released in 1971 due to ill health, stripped of her Greek citizenship, and exiled. Living again in London, she wrote and published A Piece of Truth (1973), partly a personal memoir and partly an account of political activities in Greece. She worked with Melina Mercouri and Helen Vlachos in the anti-junta movement. Lady Fleming returned to Greece after the fall of the junta in 1974. She was elected to the Greek Parliament in 1977, 1981 and 1985, and was active in human rights organizations. She founded the nonprofit that later became the Alexander Fleming Biomedical Sciences Research Center in Athens.