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Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, simultaneously a theory of personality, a therapy, and an intellectual movement. He was born into a middle-class Jewish family in Freiburg, Moravia, now part of Czechoslovakia, but then a city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the age of 4, he moved to Vienna, where he spent nearly his entire life. In 1873 he entered the medical school at the University of Vienna and spent the following eight years pursuing a wide range of studies, including philosophy, in addition to the medical curriculum. After graduating, he worked in several clinics and went to Paris to study under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist who used hypnosis to treat the symptoms of hysteria. When Freud returned to Vienna and set up practice as a clinical neurologist, he found orthodox therapies for nervous disorders ineffective for most of his patients, so he began to use a modified version of the hypnosis he had learned under Charcot. Gradually, however, he discovered that it was not necessary to put patients into a deep trance; rather, he would merely encourage them to talk freely, saying whatever came to mind without self-censorship, in order to bring unconscious material to the surface, where it could be analyzed. He found that this method of free association very often evoked memories of traumatic events in childhood, usually having to do with sex. This discovery led him, at first, to assume that most of his patients had actually been seduced as children by adult relatives and that this was the cause of their neuroses; later, however, he changed his mind and concluded that his patients' memories of childhood seduction were fantasies born of their childhood sexual desires for adults. (This reversal is a matter of some controversy today.) Out of this clinical material he constructed a theory of psychosexual development through oral, anal, phallic and genital stages. Freud considered his patients' dreams and his own to be "the royal road to the unconscious." In The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), perhaps his most brilliant book, he theorized that dreams are heavily disguised expressions of deep-seated wishes and fears and can give great insight into personality. These investigations led him to his theory of a three-part structure of personality: the id (unconscious biological drives, especially for sex), the superego (the conscience, guided by moral principles), and the ego (the mediator between the id and superego, guided by reality). Freud's last years were plagued by severe illness and the rise of Nazism, which regarded psychoanalysis as a "Jewish pollution." Through the intervention of the British and U.S. governments, he was allowed to emigrate in 1938 to England, where he died 15 months later, widely honored for his original thinking. His theories have had a profound impact on psychology, anthropology, art, and literature, as well as on the thinking of millions of ordinary people about their own lives. Freud's daughter Anna Freud was the founder of the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic in London, where her specialty was applying psychoanalysis to children. Her major work was The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936). (Bowker Author Biography)
— biography from Civilization and Its Discontents
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Civilization and Its Discontents 4,998 copies, 36 reviews
The Interpretation of Dreams 4,634 copies, 41 reviews
The Future of an Illusion 1,561 copies, 14 reviews
Totem and Taboo 1,394 copies, 10 reviews
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (Author) 1,256 copies, 6 reviews
The Ego and the Id 933 copies, 5 reviews
Moses and Monotheism 833 copies, 4 reviews
The Freud Reader 810 copies, 5 reviews
Beyond the Pleasure Principle 773 copies, 8 reviews
An Outline of Psychoanalysis 590 copies, 4 reviews
On Dreams 581 copies, 5 reviews
Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (Author) 562 copies, 2 reviews
Three Case Histories 490 copies, 1 review
Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis 481 copies, 2 reviews
Studies in Hysteria 435 copies, 1 review
The Uncanny (Penguin Classics) 358 copies, 2 reviews
The Freud/Jung Letters 207 copies, 1 review
On Metapsychology 171 copies, 2 reviews
An Autobiographical Study 156 copies, 2 reviews
The Psychology of Love 124 copies, 1 review
A Young Girl's Diary (Foreword) 119 copies, 3 reviews
Why War? 118 copies, 2 reviews
The Schreber Case 116 copies, 2 reviews
Cocaine papers 89 copies
Deviant Love 80 copies
Selected Writings 78 copies, 1 review
The Wolfman 72 copies
Therapy and Technique 68 copies, 1 review
The Wolf-Man 66 copies
Obras Completas. 26 Volumenes 28 copies, 1 review
La histeria 17 copies, 1 review
La psicoanalisi 16 copies
Casi clinici 16 copies, 1 review
Opere 1886-1905 14 copies
Obras completas 14 copies
Paranoia y neurosis obsesiva 13 copies, 1 review
Correspondence 12 copies, 1 review
Opere 1905/1921 12 copies
Sexualleben 11 copies
Ensayos sobre sexualidad 10 copies, 1 review
Epistolario 7 copies
Il sogno 7 copies
Werken 6 copies
Psychanalyse 5 copies
Essays. 5 copies
Psykoanalyse 5 copies
Psychoanalyse 5 copies
Lo siniestro 4 copies
Opere scelte 4 copies
Opere 4 copies
Briefwechsel 4 copies
Névrose et psychose 3 copies, 1 review
Metapsykologi 3 copies
Sigmund Freud: Collected Papers (5 Vol) (Author) 3 copies, 1 review
フロイト 3 copies
Esszék 3 copies
Repression 3 copies, 1 review
Briefe 3 copies
Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama (Contributor, some editions) 846 copies, 6 reviews
The Sandman (Contributor, some editions) 503 copies, 11 reviews
Critical Theory Since Plato (Contributor, some editions) 365 copies, 1 review
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (Author, some editions) 155 copies
God (Hackett Readings in Philosophy) (Contributor, some editions) 51 copies
Ritual : psycho-analytic studies (Preface, some editions) 29 copies
The Question of God [2004 TV] (Contributor) 23 copies, 1 review

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