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Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)

Author of Civilization and Its Discontents

1,530+ Works 44,647 Members 339 Reviews 67 Favorited

About the Author

Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, simultaneously a theory of personality, a therapy, and an intellectual movement. He was born into a middle-class Jewish family in Freiburg, Moravia, now part of Czechoslovakia, but then a city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the age of 4, he moved show more to Vienna, where he spent nearly his entire life. In 1873 he entered the medical school at the University of Vienna and spent the following eight years pursuing a wide range of studies, including philosophy, in addition to the medical curriculum. After graduating, he worked in several clinics and went to Paris to study under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist who used hypnosis to treat the symptoms of hysteria. When Freud returned to Vienna and set up practice as a clinical neurologist, he found orthodox therapies for nervous disorders ineffective for most of his patients, so he began to use a modified version of the hypnosis he had learned under Charcot. Gradually, however, he discovered that it was not necessary to put patients into a deep trance; rather, he would merely encourage them to talk freely, saying whatever came to mind without self-censorship, in order to bring unconscious material to the surface, where it could be analyzed. He found that this method of free association very often evoked memories of traumatic events in childhood, usually having to do with sex. This discovery led him, at first, to assume that most of his patients had actually been seduced as children by adult relatives and that this was the cause of their neuroses; later, however, he changed his mind and concluded that his patients' memories of childhood seduction were fantasies born of their childhood sexual desires for adults. (This reversal is a matter of some controversy today.) Out of this clinical material he constructed a theory of psychosexual development through oral, anal, phallic and genital stages. Freud considered his patients' dreams and his own to be "the royal road to the unconscious." In The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), perhaps his most brilliant book, he theorized that dreams are heavily disguised expressions of deep-seated wishes and fears and can give great insight into personality. These investigations led him to his theory of a three-part structure of personality: the id (unconscious biological drives, especially for sex), the superego (the conscience, guided by moral principles), and the ego (the mediator between the id and superego, guided by reality). Freud's last years were plagued by severe illness and the rise of Nazism, which regarded psychoanalysis as a "Jewish pollution." Through the intervention of the British and U.S. governments, he was allowed to emigrate in 1938 to England, where he died 15 months later, widely honored for his original thinking. His theories have had a profound impact on psychology, anthropology, art, and literature, as well as on the thinking of millions of ordinary people about their own lives. Freud's daughter Anna Freud was the founder of the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic in London, where her specialty was applying psychoanalysis to children. Her major work was The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936). (Bowker Author Biography) show less
Image credit: Wikipedia (From Life Magazine)


Works by Sigmund Freud

The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) 5,308 copies
The Future of an Illusion (1927) 1,724 copies
Totem and Taboo (1913) 1,569 copies
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901) — Author — 1,439 copies
The Ego and the Id (1960) 1,034 copies
Moses and Monotheism (1939) 939 copies
The Freud Reader (1989) 918 copies
An Outline of Psychoanalysis (1940) 667 copies
On Dreams (1899) 647 copies
Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1922) — Author — 636 copies
Studies in Hysteria (1895) 494 copies
Three Case Histories (1963) 467 copies
The Freud/Jung Letters (1974) 237 copies
General Psychological Theory (1963) 226 copies
On Metapsychology (1968) 195 copies
An Autobiographical Study (1935) 189 copies
The Psychology of Love (1976) 170 copies
Character and Culture (1963) 152 copies
Why War? (1934) 143 copies
Art and Literature (1982) 139 copies
A Young Girl's Diary (1921) — Foreword — 132 copies
The Schreber Case (1986) 123 copies
Letters of Sigmund Freud (1960) 110 copies
Forgetting Things (2005) 107 copies
Cocaine papers (1963) 104 copies
Deviant Love (2007) 87 copies
Sigmund Freud Selected Writings (1996) — Author — 82 copies
The Wolfman (1918) 79 copies
The Wolf-Man (1971) 79 copies
Therapy and Technique (1963) 74 copies
Studies in Parapsychology (1900) 57 copies
Oeuvres complètes (1923) 55 copies
Essais de psychanalyse (1975) 54 copies
Psicoanálisis del arte (1971) 33 copies
La psicoanalisi infantile (1968) 28 copies
Samlade skrifter (1997) 27 copies
Psychoanalysis and faith (1963) 25 copies
La psicoanalisi (2007) 21 copies
Obras completas (1901) 20 copies
Aforismi e pensieri (1944) 18 copies
La histeria (1967) 18 copies
Casi clinici (1991) 16 copies
Correspondence (1977) 16 copies
Obras Completas - Tomo X (2000) 16 copies
MALESTAR EN LA CULTURA, EL (2010) 15 copies
Opere 1886-1905 (1992) 15 copies
Ma vie et la psychanalyse (1968) 14 copies
Opere 1905/1921 (1993) 14 copies
The Wisdom of Sigmund Freud (2010) 14 copies
Tapauskertomukset (2006) 14 copies
Collected papers ; Volume 2 (1950) 14 copies
Kitle Psikolojisi (2000) 12 copies
Beschouwingen over cultuur (1999) 12 copies
Sexualleben (1972) 11 copies
por que la guerra (1964) 11 copies
On Cocaine (On Series) (2011) 11 copies
Ensayos sobre sexualidad (1984) 11 copies
Werkausgabe in zwei Bänden (1978) 10 copies
Deuil et mélancolie (2011) 10 copies
Three Contemporary Theories (1962) 10 copies
Collected papers. Vol.4 (1946) 10 copies
De draagbare Freud (1991) 10 copies
Inimhinge anatoomiast (1999) 10 copies
Epistolario (1976) 10 copies
Psychoanalyse (1990) 9 copies
Pszichoanalízis (1992) 8 copies
Briefwechsel (1968) 7 copies
Il perturbante (1993) 7 copies
Obras completas (1901) 7 copies
Dreams in folklore (1958) 7 copies
Duas Hitórias Clínicas (2006) 7 copies
Carteggio Freud-Groddeck (1973) 7 copies
Werken (2006) 6 copies
Psychanalyse (1997) 6 copies
Psykoanalyse (1994) 6 copies
Lo siniestro (1978) 6 copies
Sobre os Sonhos (2011) 6 copies
Opere complete (2013) 6 copies
Cartas de amor (1901) 5 copies
Relatos Clinicos (1997) 5 copies
Sur la psychanalyse (1991) 5 copies
Isteria e angoscia (1975) 5 copies
Autobiografía (2011) 5 copies
Rüyaların Yorumu 1 (2017) 5 copies
Freud Verbatim (2014) 5 copies
Cinsiyet Uzerine (2009) 5 copies
Índices e Bibliografias (2006) 5 copies
Ruyalarin Yorumu (2014) 5 copies
Opere 1886-1921 (2009) 5 copies
Nevrosi e psicosi (1970) 5 copies
Essays. (1988) 5 copies
Zum Thema: Goethe. (1987) 5 copies
Amator Psikanalizi (2015) 4 copies
Seksualteorien 4 copies
Opere 4 copies
Ossessioni e fobie (1991) 4 copies
Rüyaların Yorumu 2 (2017) 4 copies
Psikanaliz Üzerine (2000) 4 copies
Complete Works 4 copies
Opere scelte (1999) 4 copies
Les mots de Freud (1982) 4 copies
Noi e la morte 4 copies
Despre vis (2011) 4 copies
Freud - Os Pensadores (2005) 4 copies
Repression 3 copies
フロイト 3 copies
Escritos Sobre Literatura (2014) 3 copies
Freud: Therapy and Technique (1963) — Author — 3 copies
Metapsykologi (1970) 3 copies
Esquecimento e Fantasma (1991) 3 copies
Bir Yanlsamann Gelecei (2000) 3 copies
Correspondance 1906-1939 (2009) 3 copies
Freud, Sex, and Dreams (2003) 3 copies
Homem dos Lobos, O (2016) 3 copies
Esszék (1982) 3 copies
Briefe (1972) 3 copies
Névrose et psychose (2013) 3 copies
Drøm og okkultisme (1996) 3 copies
The Best of Sigmund Freud (2016) 3 copies
Sigmund Freud: Collected Papers (5 Vol) (1959) — Author — 3 copies
Correspondance: 1906-1914 (1992) 3 copies
TOTEM VE TABU 2 2 copies
El hombre de los lobos (1995) 2 copies
TOTEM VE TABU 1 2 copies
Auswahl 1920 - 1937 (1989) 2 copies
Uygarlık Din Ve Toplum (2017) 2 copies
Cocukta Fobinin Analizi (2010) 2 copies
Epistolario III 2 copies
Mutlu Olma İhtimalimiz (2014) 2 copies
Jesus und (Sigmund) Freud (1972) 2 copies
Amatör Psikanaliz (1998) 2 copies
Freud, O.C.: Tomo 5 (1997) 2 copies
Freud, O.C.: Tomo 7 (1997) 2 copies
Dreams and psychoanalysis — Author — 2 copies
Correspondance 1882-1938 (2015) 2 copies
Obras Completas II (2006) 2 copies
Freuds breve bind 1 (1997) 2 copies
Opere esenţiale (2009) 2 copies
Psykoanalytisk teknik (1977) 2 copies
O člověku a kultuře (1990) 2 copies
Du masochisme (2011) 2 copies
Racconti analitici (2011) 2 copies
Lettres de jeunesse (1990) 2 copies
Making Freud more Freudian (2010) — Associated Name — 2 copies
Hvorfor krig? 2 copies
Studienausgabe (1989) 2 copies
Fetischismus 2 copies
Neurosenlehre 2 copies
Briefe, 1907-1926 (1980) 2 copies
La sexualité infantile (2011) 2 copies
Psicoanalisi dell'isteria (1991) 2 copies
L'inconscient (2013) 2 copies
L'inquiétant familer (2011) 2 copies
Freuds egen kogebog (2006) 2 copies
Collected papers, vol. II (1942) 2 copies
Freud on Sex and Neurosis (1949) 2 copies
Freud : Choix de textes (2003) 2 copies
La Féminité (2016) 1 copy
Opere 1 copy
Endişe 1 copy
Moses 1 copy
Mutlu Olma Ihtimalimiz (2019) 1 copy
Kulturdeki Huzursuzluk (2011) 1 copy
Mpsychologie 1 copy
FRIKA 1 copy
"Bērnu sit" (1998) 1 copy
Cinsellik Üzerine (2020) 1 copy
KURT ADAM 1 copy
A Young Girl's Diary. (1921) 1 copy
Askin Psikolojisi (2021) 1 copy
Freud, O.C.: Tomo 4 (2006) 1 copy
Egonezina Kulturan (2009) 1 copy
Lettres: 1904-1937 (2016) 1 copy
L'Io e l'Es 1 copy
Psikanaliz (2014) 1 copy
Álomfejtés 1 copy
Rüya yorumlari (2017) 1 copy
Alomfejtes 1 copy
Freud vol. 2 1 copy
Výklad snù ; O snu (1998) 1 copy
Vergânglichkeit (2011) 1 copy
Goethe Preis 1 copy
The Essential Freud (2010) 1 copy
Charakter a erotyka (1996) 1 copy
Pisma psychologiczne (2012) 1 copy
Charcot 1 copy
Studia nad histerią (2008) 1 copy
Pisma społeczne (1998) 1 copy
Le lapsus 1 copy
Dwie nerwice dzieciece (2009) 1 copy
Technika terapii (2007) 1 copy
Výklad snů (1997) 1 copy
HOMBRE DE LAS RATAS,EL (2014) 1 copy
Sul sogno 1 copy
Cinsellik Uzerine (2015) 1 copy
Otobiyografi (2016) 1 copy
Lettres à ses enfants (2012) 1 copy
Het ontwerp 1 copy
Čovek pacov 1 copy
Histeria i lęk (2014) 1 copy
Opere - Volume II (1970) 1 copy
Opere I (2006) 1 copy
Briefwechsel 1909-1939 (2015) 1 copy
ENDRRAT 1 copy

Associated Works

Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama (1995) — Contributor, some editions — 917 copies
The Sandman (1816) — Contributor, some editions — 607 copies
Critical Theory Since Plato (1971) — Contributor, some editions — 400 copies
Criticism: Major Statements (1964) — Contributor — 222 copies
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (1996) — Author, some editions — 185 copies
The Grim Reader: Writings on Death, Dying, and Living On (1997) — Contributor — 60 copies
God (Hackett Readings in Philosophy) (1996) — Contributor, some editions — 57 copies
Sophocles: A Collection of Critical Essays (1966) — Contributor — 41 copies
Ritual : psycho-analytic studies (1946) — Preface, some editions — 35 copies
Onbehagen nieuw licht op de beschaafde mens (2016) — Contributor — 32 copies
The Question of God [2004 TV] (2004) — Contributor — 26 copies
Philosophy now : an introductory reader (1972) — Contributor — 24 copies
Ein ganz besonderer Saft - Urin (1994) — Contributor — 17 copies
Het derde Testament : Joodse verhalen (1995) — Contributor, some editions — 7 copies
Topsy: The Story of a Golden-Haired Chow (History of Ideas Series) (1937) — Translator, some editions — 6 copies
Makers of the twentieth century: Marx, Nietzsche, Freud (1968) — some editions — 4 copies


20th century (291) anthology (260) anthropology (153) Austria (80) biography (98) civilization (67) classic (76) classics (113) critical theory (69) dreams (344) essay (93) essays (130) fiction (158) Freud (1,822) German (233) history (139) literary criticism (119) literature (246) new-lifetime-reading-plan (76) non-fiction (1,740) own (93) philosophy (1,169) poetry (92) psych (101) psychiatry (226) psychoanalysis (4,107) psychology (6,134) psychotherapy (84) read (182) reference (84) religion (423) science (169) sexuality (196) Sigmund Freud (263) sociology (145) textbook (78) theory (301) to-read (1,012) translation (106) unread (127)

Common Knowledge



Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams in Dreamers (January 2017)
Sigmund Freud in Legacy Libraries (July 2012)


AnkaraLibrary | 13 other reviews | Feb 23, 2024 |
Wow, such a fascinating text. It read like a detective story with a lot of uncovering of mysteries. Every lecture brought out into light a new aspect of the crime and in the end it was all tied together into a coherent believable system of understanding the dynamics of the psyche.
I haven't yet read any criticism of Freud so what i have at this point is just my amazement and excitement with the models he proposes. He shone a bright light on my understanding of dreams, neurotic symptoms and generally the condition of mental suffering. I am very greatful for that and i want to know more.
This book also provides a glimpse into the history of psychoanalysis, namely the problems that Freud and early psychoanalysts had to encounter while developing theory and practice, ironing out the details and then dealing with the protesting reactions of the public. They faced a lot of hate and it was interesting to read how they dealt with it and how they felt about it.
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rubyman | 20 other reviews | Feb 21, 2024 |
Freud loved civilization; and he was also ambivalent about it. Freud is moderately interesting in that he was both influenced by and part of, the thoughts of the men (women?) of his own time and immediately before, and a big influence on subsequent decades, as well as a ‘unique’ take on relevant human questions.

Anyway, this seems to be basically Freud’s book about happiness. ‘Interpretation of Dreams’ was sorta okay—it’s a great topic—although I feel like he tried way too hard, you know. (His favorite book!) In this book he kinda keeps it simpler—happiness; barriers to happiness—and in Freud’s world, when he simplifies himself, he kinda barely brushes the top of the hills, instead of floating in the path of the spy planes, you know.

…. Freud’s occasional weirdo-sexism won’t surprise the students of reputation, but more central to his point is that there is more to civilization than just-academics-and-nothing-but-the-academics; the-isolated-man-and-nothing-but-the-isolated-man, you know.

…. I’m sure that what Siggy writes can be interpreted in different ways, but I don’t think I’m as positive, or sanguine, about hostility as he is, and I don’t think that people need to earn love. I don’t know; love isn’t marriage, but people shouldn’t have to earn love. Although he is quite brave to state as his belief what most people usually believe, when most people usually by no means consider their own beliefs to be correct, you know—their real beliefs. And it’s true that Christian and communist (etc.) love in general has been based on the exclusion of the other. So there are some things he’s right about, I guess, although he is both very common, and rather weird.

…. I don’t think that Freud was trivial, the way that we want to believe; Eckhart Tolle dismissed him in about a sentence, you know. “He didn’t talk about meditation, so screw him.” Freud wasn’t completely deluded, or completely without aid for humanity, really: you could at least stop blaming yourself, attacking yourself, taking it out on yourself—that only increases the total amount of aggression, in the end…. Sometimes the religion of Freud’s day took dying on a cross of one’s own construction to be almost the goal of the human project, but….

…. So it’s basically about happiness, although other related topics are brought in, such as guilt, social structures, and parental relations (mostly that of the father as family law-giver vs resentful children, basically).

…. “(The cultural super-ego) issues a command and does not ask whether it is possible for people to obey it.”

This is true I think of the Jewish and I guess the Catholic god. The Calvinist one IMO issues a command while asserting that it cannot be obeyed, you know. 🤓🤪😠

…. I guess properly it is about the ~barriers~ to happiness, of course.

(Calvinist) Yes, this is the law. It’s a good law. No, you are constitutionally and inherently unable to obey it. This law will find you guilty; it will make you unhappy. What’s wrong with that? 😠
(Freud) (does crazy/loony tunes gestures behind his back)
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1 vote
goosecap | 44 other reviews | Jan 14, 2024 |
I think people familiar only with the popular image of Freud would be surprised at the pains he takes to make sure his hypotheses are taken as provisional, speculative, in need of further study, etc. The interesting bit is the bridge he constructs from "folk" psychological phenomena that everyone will be familiar with to an assembly of 19th century chemical/hydraulic metaphors.
audient_void | 9 other reviews | Jan 6, 2024 |



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Associated Authors

Anna Freud Foreword, Editor, Introduction
Ernest Jones Editor, Introduction
Erich Fromm Contributor
Jürgen Habermas Contributor
Ronald David Laing Contributor
Lu Hsun Contributor
Friedrich Engels Contributor
Max Horkheimer Contributor
Aaron Esterson Contributor
Joyce Crick Translator
James Strachey Translator, Editor
A. A. Brill Translator, Editor
Philip Rieff Editor, Introduction
John Reddick Translator
Alix Strachey Translator
Alix Strachey Translator
Mark Edmundson Introduction
Robert Waelder Introduction, Editor
Igors Šuvajevs Translator
Peter Gay Introduction, Editor
Joan Riviere Translator
Shaun Whiteside Translator
David McLintock Translator
Ritchie Robertson Introduction
J. A. Underwood Translator
Stephen Wilson Introduction
John Forrester Introduction
Marie Bonaparte Translator, Editor
Wolf D. Zimmermann Cover designer
G. Stanley Hall Introduction
Foteini Tsalikoglou Introduction
Paul Rand Cover designer
Anne BALSEINTE Translator
Antti Eskola Foreword
Silvija Brice Translator
Abraham A Brill Translator
Anthea Bell Translator
Alan Tyson Translator
Katherine Jones Translator
Gregory Zilboorg Introduction
Franz Alexander Introduction
N. van Suchtelen Translator
Ernst Kris Editor, Introduction
André Tridon Introduction
Bernd Urban Editor, Foreword
Johannes Cremerius Editor, Foreword
Stuart Gilbert Translator
Cedar Paul Translator
Clara Malraux Translator
Eden Paul Translator
Julia Swindells Introduction
Eric Mosbacher Translator
Michael Hulse Translator
Thomas Mann Afterword
León Mames Translator
Ludvík Hošek Translator
Paul Hoffmann Narrator
Jiří Pechar Translator


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