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Author photo. Photograph by Étienne Carjat (1876)

Photograph by Étienne Carjat (1876)

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Victor Hugo was born in Besançon, France on February 26, 1802. Although he originally studied law, Hugo dreamed of writing. In 1819, he founded the journal Conservateur Litteraire as an outlet for his dream and soon produced volumes of poetry, plays, and novels. His novels included The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Miserables. Both of these works have been adapted for the stage and screen many times. These adaptations include the Walt Disney version of The Hunchback of Notre Dame, and the award-winning musical sensation Les Miserables. In addition to his literary career, Hugo also held political office. In 1841, he was elected to the Academie Francaise. After political upheaval in 1851, he was exiled and remained so until 1870. He returned to Paris in 1871 and was elected to the National Assembly, though he soon resigned. He died on May 22, 1885. (Bowker Author Biography)
— biography from Les Misérables
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Les Misérables (Author) 22,735 copies, 303 reviews
The Hunchback of Notre Dame (Author) 12,389 copies, 161 reviews
The Toilers of the Sea (Author) 1,145 copies, 23 reviews
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The Last Day of a Condemned Man 957 copies, 26 reviews
The Man Who Laughs 828 copies, 20 reviews
Les Misérables, Volume 2 of 2 783 copies, 1 review
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Les Misérables [abridged] 354 copies, 3 reviews
Les Contemplations 286 copies, 1 review
Ruy Blas 281 copies, 5 reviews
Hernani 279 copies, 4 reviews
Les Miserables (Abridged Edition) 275 copies, 14 reviews
Les Misérables (1/3) (Author) 222 copies, 2 reviews
Les Misérables (2/3) 164 copies, 2 reviews
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Claude Gueux 121 copies, 2 reviews
Les Châtiments 118 copies, 1 review
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Gavroche 115 copies
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The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1/2) (Author) 95 copies, 2 reviews
La Légende des siècles 86 copies, 2 reviews
The History of a Crime 86 copies, 1 review
Les Misérables (1/5) : Fantine (Author) 62 copies, 1 review
Cromwell 60 copies
Napoleon the Little 57 copies, 2 reviews
De ellendigen 55 copies
Les Miserables (Radio Theatre) 46 copies, 3 reviews
Lucrèce Borgia 44 copies, 2 reviews
Ernani (sound recording) (original play) 43 copies, 2 reviews
Hernani / The King's Diversion / Ruy Blas (Author) 43 copies, 1 review
The Rhine (Author) 34 copies, 2 reviews
The Man Who Laughs (1/2) (Author) 33 copies, 2 reviews
Le roi s'amuse (Author) 31 copies, 1 review
Préface de Cromwell 29 copies, 1 review
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Theatre 1 (French Edition) (Author) 25 copies, 1 review
The Man Who Laughs [1928 film] (Novel) 19 copies, 1 review
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Choix de poésies lyriques 16 copies, 1 review
The Toilers of the Sea (2/2) (Author) 13 copies, 1 review
Les Burgraves (Author) 12 copies
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Marion de Lorme (Author) 11 copies
Mangeront-ils ? 11 copies
YHDEKSÄNKYMMENTÄKOLME 2 (Author) 11 copies, 1 review
Kurjat 2 10 copies
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Contro i tagli alla cultura 9 copies, 1 review
La chute 8 copies
Choses vues 1830-1846 8 copies, 1 review
María Tudor (Author) 8 copies
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Dramas 4 copies
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Les misables 4 copies
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Vargdieniai 3 3 copies
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Marvel Classics Comics # 3 3 copies, 1 review
Poésie 3 copies
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Mes fils 2 copies
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Gargantua (Foreword, some editions) 561 copies, 10 reviews
Prefaces and Prologues to Famous Books (Contributor) 448 copies, 1 review
The Penguin Book of War (Contributor) 385 copies, 1 review
Candide [Norton Critical Edition, 1st ed.] (Contributor) 140 copies, 2 reviews
Les Miserables [1998 film] (Original book) 129 copies, 2 reviews
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French Short Stories (Contributor) 78 copies
Best Loved Books for Young Readers 04 (Author) 59 copies, 1 review
The Hunchback of Notre Dame [1923 film] (Original book) 36 copies
Les Misérables [2000 TV mini series] (Original book) 16 copies
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The Paris Review 167 2003 Fall (Contributor) 11 copies
Les Miserables [1978 TV movie] (Original novel) 8 copies
Four Novels for Adventure (Contributor) 3 copies
Miserables, les - I jean valjean (BD) (some editions) 3 copies
A Book of Narratives (Contributor) 2 copies
Literaire rechtspraak (Contributor, some editions) 1 copy

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Short biography
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802) – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote abundantly in an exceptional variety of genres: lyrics, satires, epics, philosophical poems, epigrams, novels, history, critical essays, political speeches, funeral orations, diaries, letters public and private, and dramas in verse and prose.

Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. Outside France, his most famous works are the novels Les Misérables, 1862, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (French: Notre-Dame de Paris), 1831. In France, Hugo is renowned for his poetry collections, such as Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) and La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages). Hugo was at the forefront of the Romantic literary movement with his play Cromwell and drama Hernani. Many of his works have inspired music, both during his lifetime and after his death, including the musicals Les Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris. He produced more than 4,000 drawings in his lifetime, and campaigned for social causes such as the abolition of capital punishment.

Though a committed royalist when he was young, Hugo's views changed as the decades passed, and he became a passionate supporter of republicanism; his work touched upon most of the political and social issues and the artistic trends of his time. His opposition to absolutism and his colossal literary achievement established him as a national hero. He was honoured by interment in the Panthéon.
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