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The greatest of all modern philosophers was born in the Baltic seaport of Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler and never left the vicinity of his remote birthplace. Through his family pastor, Immanuel Kant received the opportunity to study at the newly founded Collegium Fredericianum, proceeding to the University of Konigsberg, where he was introduced to Wolffian philosophy and modern natural science by the philosopher Martin Knutzen. From 1746 to 1755, he served as tutor in various households near Konigsberg. Between 1755 and 1770, Kant published treatises on a number of scientific and philosophical subjects, including one in which he originated the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. Some of Kant's writings in the early 1760s attracted the favorable notice of respected philosophers such as J. H. Lambert and Moses Mendelssohn, but a professorship eluded Kant until he was over 45. In 1781 Kant finally published his great work, the Critique of Pure Reason. The early reviews were hostile and uncomprehending, and Kant's attempt to make his theories more accessible in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) was largely unsuccessful. Then, partly through the influence of former student J. G. Herder, whose writings on anthropology and history challenged his Enlightenment convictions, Kant turned his attention to issues in the philosophy of morality and history, writing several short essays on the philosophy of history and sketching his ethical theory in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). Kant's new philosophical approach began to receive attention in 1786 through a series of articles in a widely circulated Gottingen journal by the Jena philosopher K. L. Reinhold. The following year Kant published a new, extensively revised edition of the Critique, following it up with the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), treating the foundations of moral philosophy, and the Critique of Judgment (1790), an examination of aesthetics rounding out his system through a strikingly original treatment of two topics that were widely perceived as high on the philosophical agenda at the time - the philosophical meaning of the taste for beauty and the use of teleology in natural science. From the early 1790s onward, Kant was regarded by the coming generation of philosophers as having overthrown all previous systems and as having opened up a whole new philosophical vista. During the last decade of his philosophical activity, Kant devoted most of his attention to applications of moral philosophy. His two chief works in the 1790s were Religion Within the Bounds of Plain Reason (1793--94) and Metaphysics of Morals (1798), the first part of which contained Kant's theory of right, law, and the political state. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Kant, however, had perceived an important gap in his system and had begun rethinking its foundations. These attempts went on for four more years until the ravages of old age finally destroyed Kant's capacity for further intellectual work. The result was a lengthy but disorganized manuscript that was first published in 1920 under the title Opus Postumum. It displays the impact of some of the more radical young thinkers Kant's philosophy itself had inspired. Kant's philosophy focuses attention on the active role of human reason in the process of knowing the world and on its autonomy in giving moral law. Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. For him the process of free communication between independent minds is the very life of reason, the vocation of which is to remake politics, religion, science, art, and morality as the completion of a destiny whose shape it is our collective task to frame for ourselves. (Bowker Author Biography) Philosopher Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Konigsberg, East Prussia. He studied at the University of Konigsberg, where he would act as a lecturer and professor after a brief career as a private tutor. Kant was an incredibly influential philosopher, his theories having impact on the likes of Schopenhauer and Hegel. Kant's most prominent works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) and Critique of Practical Reason (1788). He died in 1804. (Bowker Author Biography) — biography from Critique of Pure Reason… (more)
Critique of Pure Reason (Author) 6,145 copies, 45 reviews
Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (Author) 3,437 copies, 16 reviews
Critique of Judgment (Author) 2,054 copies, 18 reviews
Critique of Practical Reason (Author) 1,688 copies, 10 reviews
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (Author) 1,295 copies, 3 reviews
Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone (Author) 734 copies, 3 reviews
Perpetual Peace (Author) 543 copies, 9 reviews
The Metaphysics of Morals (Author) 439 copies, 3 reviews
Kant's Political Writings 413 copies, 2 reviews
Logic 263 copies
On Education 114 copies, 1 review
Kant Selections 75 copies, 1 review
The Conflict of the Faculties (Author) 68 copies, 1 review
Opus postumum 67 copies
Opuscules sur l'histoire 25 copies, 1 review
Correspondence 24 copies
The essential Kant 24 copies, 1 review
Kant 9 copies
Crítica de la Razón Pura II (Author) 9 copies, 1 review
Briefe 6 copies
Immanuel Kant 5 copies
La Pedagogia 4 copies
Logique 4 copies
Teoria do Céu (Author) 3 copies
Kant-Brevier 3 copies
Foundations of Ethics 3 copies, 1 review
Le conflit des facultés (Author) 3 copies
La pau perpetua 2 copies, 1 review
Géographie 2 copies
Logika 2 copies
Kant 2 copies
SOBRE EDUCACIÓN 2 copies, 1 review
Kant I 2 copies
KANT 1 copy
Kritika e gjykimit 1 copy, 1 review
La morale 1 copy
Scritti politici 1 copy, 1 review
Kant 1 copy
PROLEGOMENA 1 copy, 1 review
I. Kant 1 copy
Critiques 1 copy
Fragmanlar 1 copy
Brevier 1 copy
The European Philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche (Contributor) 410 copies, 3 reviews
Critical Theory Since Plato (Contributor, some editions) 386 copies, 1 review
Criticism: Major Statements (Contributor) 209 copies
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (Author, some editions) 174 copies
Man and Spirit: The Speculative Philosophers (Contributor) 165 copies, 1 review
Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology (Contributor) 67 copies
Range of Philosophy (Contributor) 47 copies

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Emanuel Kant was

the fourth of the nine children of Johann Georg Kant (1682-1746), a saddler from Memel (now Klaipėda, Lithuania) and his wife, Anna Regina Reuter (1697-1737), who was from Nuremburg. Kant began to spell his name "Immanuel" after learning Hebrew. His paternal grandfather, Hans Cant, had emigrated to Prussia from Scotland. Kant enrolled at Königsberg University in 1840 at the age of 16. Between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor (Hauslehrer) in Judtschen (now Veselovka, Russia)and in Groß-Arnsdorf (now near Elbląg, Poland). Kant went on to become Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) in 1770, at the age of 46. He never married.
He was a towering figure of the Enlightenment, influenced nearly all modern philosophers. In his writings, including his masterpiece, the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), he argued that we can only truly know that which can be proven by evidence. He placed the active, rational human being at the center of the cognitive and moral worlds. He suggested that we have a moral obligation, which he called the "categorical Imperative," to behave in an intrinsically good way under all circumstances -- not necessarily in ways that would make us happy, but in ways that would make us worthy of being happy. In his 1795 work Perpetual Peace, he quoted the Latin phrase "Fiat justitia, pereat mundus" ("Let justice be done, though the world perish"). He also criticized those who focused too much on religious ritual and church hierarchy as attempts to please the Creator without having to practice the actual principles of religion and righteousness.
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