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Karl Marx (1818–1883)

Author of The Communist Manifesto

1,618+ Works 45,968 Members 353 Reviews 92 Favorited

About the Author

Karl Heinrich Marx, one of the fathers of communism, was born on May 5, 1818 in Trier, Germany. He was educated at a variety of German colleges, including the University of Jena. He was an editor of socialist periodicals and a key figure in the Working Man's Association. Marx co-wrote his show more best-known work, "The Communist Manifesto" (1848), with his friend, Friedrich Engels. Marx's most important work, however, may be "Das Kapital" (1867), an analysis of the economics of capitalism. He died on March 14, 1883 in London, England. (Bowker Author Biography) show less
Disambiguation Notice:


  • Karl Marx (1): Philosoph, 1818-1883.
  • Karl Marx (2): Komponist, 1897-1985.


  • Karl Marx (1): Philosoph, 1818-1883.

    (dut) 1. Karl Marx (1818-1883): filosoof
    2. Karl Marx (1897-1985): componist

    #1 Karl Marx, 1818-1883 - Capital
    #2 Marx, Karl 1897-1985, composer - Neue Lieder
    #3 Marx, Karl 1897-1966, Journalist

Image credit: Wikipedia


Works by Karl Marx

The Communist Manifesto (1848) 15,236 copies
The Marx-Engels Reader (1972) 2,887 copies
Das Kapital (1861) 1,703 copies
The German Ideology, including Theses on Feuerbach (1932) — Author — 732 copies
Early Writings (1963) 611 copies
The Portable Karl Marx (1983) 564 copies
The Poverty of Philosophy (1847) 494 copies
Selected Writings (1994) 457 copies
Karl Marx: Selected Writings (1977) 449 copies
Value, Price and Profit (1946) 318 copies
Wage-Labour and Capital & Value, Price, and Profit (1976) — Author — 269 copies
Wage-Labour and Capital (1967) — Author — 269 copies
On Religion (1957) 258 copies
Capital and Other Writings (1777) 241 copies
Surveys from Exile (1973) 184 copies
Selected Works (1958) 177 copies
On Literature and Art (1947) 113 copies
On the Jewish Question (1843) 95 copies
Marx on Economics (1961) 92 copies
An Unfinished Revolution: Karl Marx and Abraham Lincoln (2011) — Contributor; Author — 77 copies
The Essential Left (1960) 72 copies
The Woman Question (1951) — Author — 69 copies
On Colonialism (1965) 65 copies
The Political Writings (2019) 57 copies
El Capital (1984) 56 copies
Revolution and War (2009) 54 copies
Karl Marx: A Reader (1986) — Author; Author — 49 copies
A World Without Jews (1959) 44 copies
O Capital - Livro 1 (2013) 36 copies
Articles on Britain (1775) 34 copies
Letters of Karl Marx (1979) 34 copies
Marx Selections (The Great Philosophers Series) (1988) — Author — 27 copies
The Karl Marx library (1971) 26 copies
Cartas sobre el capital (1974) 24 copies
Selected Essays (2007) 24 copies
Werke 2: 1844 bis 1846 (1957) 23 copies
La Comuna de París (1980) 23 copies
Letters to Dr. Kugelmann (1934) 22 copies
Capital - In Manga! (2012) 22 copies
Las crisis del capitalismo (2009) 21 copies
Antología (2002) 20 copies
Marx : Oeuvres, tome 1 (1963) 19 copies
Karl Marx (1956) 18 copies
On the First International (1973) 16 copies
CAPITAL, EL MANGA (2013) 16 copies
Herr Vogt (1982) 15 copies
Kapital 2 . Cilt (2007) 14 copies
Människans frigörelse (1995) 14 copies
Genesis of capital (1924) 14 copies
Selected Works, Vol. 2 (1976) 14 copies
Gesammelte Werke (2016) 13 copies
Scritti sull'arte (1971) 13 copies
Philosophie (1994) 13 copies
Werke. Bd. 7 (1990) 13 copies
Karl Marx : texter i urval (2003) 13 copies
Revolución en España (1939) 12 copies
Kapital Cilt:1 (2012) 12 copies
Early texts (1971) 12 copies
Liberdade de Imprensa (1998) 12 copies
Obras escogidas 11 copies
Os Pensadores - Marx (1996) 11 copies
Marx's Economic Manuscript of 1864-1865 (2015) — Author — 10 copies
Het communistisch Manifest (1976) 10 copies
Ten Classics of Marxism (1940) 9 copies
De brieven van Karl Marx (1981) 9 copies
Manoscritti matematici (1983) 9 copies
Oeuvres, tome 2 (1966) 9 copies
Marx i ett band (1974) 8 copies
La España revolucionaria (1854) 8 copies
Werke. Bd. 5 8 copies
Opere scelte 8 copies
Marx. Philosophie jetzt. (1996) 7 copies
Elogio del crimen (2008) 7 copies
Obras escogidas. Vol. 1 (2016) 7 copies
On Communist Society (1975) 7 copies
Karl Marx dictionary (1965) 7 copies
Brev i urval (1972) 7 copies
Texts on Method (1975) 7 copies
Het kapitaal Deel II (2011) 6 copies
A ideologia alemã I (1987) 6 copies
Ausgewählte Werke (1988) 6 copies
Critica dell'anarchismo (1972) 6 copies
Cologne Communist Trial (1971) 6 copies
Werke. Bd. 27. [Briefe] (2000) 6 copies
Teoría económica (1976) 6 copies
Werke. Bd. 34. [Briefe] (2000) 6 copies
Value: Studies (1976) 6 copies
Werke. Bd. 33. [Briefe] (1984) 5 copies
Nova Gazeta Renana (2010) 5 copies
Apital Manga Cilt 1 (2009) 5 copies
L'argent danse pour toi (2010) 5 copies
Sobre la religión I (1979) 5 copies
Scorpion und Felix (1992) 5 copies
Cina 5 copies
The Socialist Revolution (1978) 5 copies
Marx-Engels i kamp (1972) 5 copies
ˆLe ‰macchine (1990) 5 copies
The American Journalism of Marx & Engels (1966) — Author — 5 copies
Love Poems of Karl Marx (1977) 4 copies
Udvalgte skrifter (1976) 4 copies
Werke. Band 23 (1998) 4 copies
El dios dinero (2017) 4 copies
Lord Palmerston (2017) 4 copies
Over het anarchisme (1975) 4 copies
La Revolución española (2017) 4 copies
Etudes philosophiques (1976) 4 copies
Parijse manuscripten (2023) 4 copies
Staatstheorie (1988) 4 copies
Communistisch manifest (2021) 4 copies
Felsefe Incelemeleri (2013) 4 copies
El Sindicalismo (1976) 4 copies
Το κεφάλαιο (1982) 4 copies
Über Kultur, Ästhetik, Literatur (1973) — Author — 4 copies
Kapital und Politik (2008) 4 copies
Obras escogidas. Vol. 2 (2016) 4 copies
Merce e denaro 3 copies
Manuscrits de 1857-1858 (1980) 3 copies
L'Internazionale operaia (1994) 3 copies
O Capital Livro 3, vol. 4 (2008) 3 copies
El capital, IV (1986) 3 copies
El capital (III) (1986) 3 copies
Werke Band 40 (1985) 3 copies
Malthus 3 copies
Sulla libertà di stampa (1990) 3 copies
Oeuvres choisies 1 & 2 (1963) 3 copies
Obras escogidas. (1975) 3 copies
Simón Bolívar (2001) 3 copies
I programfrågor (1982) 3 copies
Breviario (2003) 3 copies
Bolivar y ponte (1999) 3 copies
Sulla scienza 3 copies
Das große Lesebuch (2008) 3 copies
Religión (2004) 2 copies
Ucret Fiyat ve Kar (2017) 2 copies
Religión ideario (2003) 2 copies
Feuerbach (2004) 2 copies
O capital, v.5 (1989) 2 copies
O Capital Tomo II (1992) 2 copies
Werke, Schriften (2013) 2 copies
Über Ludwig Feuerbach (1972) — Author — 2 copies
Articles on India (1951) 2 copies
Opere vol. 2 2 copies
Opere vol. 1 2 copies
O Capital, v.2 2 copies
España revolucionaria (1990) 2 copies
O Capital, v.1 2 copies
Señor Vogt (1974) 2 copies
Doğu sorunu: Türkiye (1977) 2 copies
Das Kapital, Kurzausgabe (1999) 2 copies
Obras escogidas (Tomo II) (1981) 2 copies
La sociedad comunista (1976) 2 copies
Marx i ett bind (1973) 2 copies
Karl Marx (2000) 2 copies
Etnoloji Defterleri (2013) 2 copies
Manuscrits de 1861-1863 (1980) 2 copies
Correspondencia 1868-1895 (1981) 2 copies
Lettere 1874-1879 (2008) 2 copies
A mercadoria (2006) 2 copies
La scoperta dell'economia (1990) 2 copies
Russia 2 copies
Ierland, Eiland in Oproer (1977) 2 copies
India 2 copies
Textos 2 copies
El Libro rojo y negro (1977) 2 copies
Sull'Irlanda 2 copies
Estranged Labor 2 copies
Sul Risorgimento italiano (2011) 2 copies
Obras escogidas (1979) 1 copy
Selected Writings (1956) 1 copy
El Capital. Volum IV (2018) 1 copy
Karl Marx 1 copy
La Marchandise (2022) 1 copy
O wychowaniu 1 copy
De America 1 copy
L'UOMO FA L'UOMO (1976) 1 copy
Din Üzerine (2019) 1 copy
O języku 1 copy
O Capital Tomo VII (2016) 1 copy
Marx 1 copy
CAPITAL Y CRISIS (1986) 1 copy
Escorpión y Felix (2012) 1 copy
Kapital Cilt: 2 (2012) 1 copy
Le Opere 1 copy
Manifeste (2006) 1 copy
Verker i utvalg (1976) 1 copy
Le capital financier (2012) 1 copy
: 1 copy
La crise (1998) 1 copy
The Fenians 1 copy
História 1 copy
Selected Writings (2010) 1 copy
Gongsandang seon-eon (2002) 1 copy
Ecrits sur la religion (2013) 1 copy
Das Kapital 1.2 (2009) 1 copy
Spisy (1989) 1 copy
Conto su di te per il vino: lettere a Engels (2018) — Author — 1 copy
La commune de 1871 (2001) 1 copy
A Socialist Reader (2014) 1 copy
Manifesten 1 copy
Poemas (Clásicos) (2000) 1 copy
Critique de Malthus (1978) 1 copy
Opere vol. 9 1 copy
Sosyoloji ve Felsefe (2015) 1 copy
Yabancılaşma (2013) 1 copy

Associated Works

Marx's Concept of Man (1961) 522 copies
Critical Theory Since Plato (1971) — Contributor, some editions — 404 copies
The Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present (1956) — Contributor — 330 copies
Dracula (Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism) (2002) — Contributor — 234 copies
Criticism: Major Statements (1964) — Contributor — 223 copies
Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy (1886) — Contributor, some editions — 220 copies
Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History (1996) — Contributor — 218 copies
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (1996) — Author, some editions — 190 copies
The Portable Victorian Reader (1972) — Contributor — 177 copies
Man Alone: Alienation in Modern Society (1962) — Contributor — 141 copies
Cultural Resistance Reader (2002) — Contributor — 140 copies
The Utopia Reader (1999) — Contributor — 113 copies
A Golden Treasure of Jewish Literature (1937) — Contributor — 76 copies
Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Business Ethics and Society (1990) — Contributor, some editions — 72 copies
Reader in Marxist Philosophy (1963) — Contributor — 62 copies
Meeting of Minds: First Series (1978) — Subject — 57 copies
Classics of Modern Political Theory : Machiavelli to Mill (1996) — Contributor — 49 copies
The Modern Historiography Reader: Western Sources (2008) — Contributor — 37 copies
Political philosophy (1965) — Contributor — 34 copies
Philosophy now : an introductory reader (1972) — Contributor — 25 copies
Marx and the French Revolution (1986) — Contributor — 20 copies
Bakoenin : een biografie in tijdsdocumenten (1977) — Contributor — 19 copies
Philosophical Issues: A Contemporary Introduction (1972) — Contributor — 17 copies
The Classics of Marxism, Volume One (2011) — Contributor — 14 copies
Utopie Eindexamencahier Havo vanaf 2007 (2006) — Contributor — 11 copies
Theories of the Labor Movement (1987) — Contributor — 7 copies
Makers of the twentieth century: Marx, Nietzsche, Freud (1968) — some editions — 4 copies
Timon of Athens : 2012 [theatre programme] (2012) — Contributor — 2 copies


19th century (474) anthology (174) capital (106) capitalism (513) class (119) classic (121) classics (173) communism (1,801) economics (1,796) economy (208) Engels (171) essays (100) Europe (98) France (144) German (261) Germany (139) historical materialism (93) history (1,246) Karl Marx (270) literature (138) Marx (1,075) Marxism (3,137) non-fiction (1,815) own (104) philosophy (3,792) political (141) political economy (440) political philosophy (509) political science (498) political theory (595) politics (2,634) read (221) revolution (195) social science (112) social theory (148) socialism (1,006) sociology (502) theory (380) to-read (1,196) unread (118)

Common Knowledge

Date of death
Burial location
London, England, UK
Country (for map)
Cause of death
bronchitis and pleurisy
Places of residence
University of Jena
First International
Short biography
Marx and his collaborator Engels were socialist activists who founded scientific socialism though the application of dialectical materialism onto history.
Disambiguation notice
#1 Karl Marx, 1818-1883 - Capital
#2 Marx, Karl 1897-1985, composer - Neue Lieder
#3 Marx, Karl 1897-1966, Journalist




This volume looks at how capital moves through the capitalist system. Rather than identifying how surplus value is created, identifying how surplus value is transferred. From the various circuits that capital and money go through and their interactions, to different costs of maintenance of capital and its mobility, Marx goes to extreme detail to describe circulation of capital.

The most important idea from this volume is the distinction between productive and unproductive capital, which are now more formally known as production and nonproduction activities. Production involves in bringing goods to market, from the various materials and services needed for the product. Nonproduction involves costs to capital and can indirectly increase the amount of productive capital there is.

Examples and details do make the book difficult to understand. The core ideas are easily lost within the all the explanations. The introduction by Ernest Mandel does a wonderful job at expressing concise the details in the book without losing much meaning.
… (more)
Eugene_Kernes | 6 other reviews | Jun 4, 2024 |
Capital allows the increase of productivity. To free up more time, or rather, to complete more tasks with the same resources. Marx points out the side effects of this process.
The major contribution Marx makes is the theory of surplus value. Production above what is necessary, above what the individual would produce on their own terms, is the surplus value. Increasing productivity allows for more surplus value. Capitalist will try to increase that surplus value as much as possible.
The major issue that Marx recognizes is that the ownership of capital prevents people from the means of production. The surplus value is taken by the capitalist, the owner of capital. The owners of capital have the ability to alter the relation between the labor and output. Changing the amount of the working day and the intensity of the work alters the amount of production. Health conditions of the workers degrade for as the capitalists takes more, there is less income for housing or nutrition.
This mode of production creates various the problem of self-refilling pool of unemployment. As productivity increases, less labor needs to go into the production cost, which means less employment. The unemployed become dead-weight of society, unable to produce while taking away resources. As there is a pool of unemployed, the reserve army of labor, the capitalist can force labor to compete with labor. Bargaining power is stronger with the capitalist than the laborer.
For each part of the capitalist mode of production, Marx takes it a part through every little detail. Showing how each part works and the effects they have. The variety of parts taken into account shows great depth of the topic. For most part, the writing is somewhat clear.
The book is lengthy, and at times, the length of the examples makes the reader questions the authenticity of the examples. They tend to support a singular direction. The constant restating the same line in different ways, rather than elucidating the situation, makes the understanding of the topic opaque. The criticism of the analysis is scarce and short but also are not given much thought beyond the shallow reasoning. Editing the work, to remove all the excess, would have provided a much shorter and more valuable read.
An assumption made is that since labor is what gives value to capital, that only labor should be compensated. The compensation is the amount of effort (usually in time) that the labor spends on production. No capitalist should get paid as surplus value is viewed as expropriation of production and is not needed for society. This assumption has a huge problem, for rather than the amount of effort that the labor provides, capitalist production allows the labor to produce more wealth. Meaning it is what the labor puts into production rather the amount of effort spent that matters. Capital helps labor produce more with less effort.
When Marx criticism the capitalist, he calls them absentee owners. In a small instance, Marx facetiously claims some services the capitalist performs, degrading the actual services provided. Services such as the use of capital and overseeing the labor. The issue is that when the same or ever worse services are provided by government officials, Marx claims that is necessary.
The benefits of productivity are rarely provided. Marx always uses productivity as freeing up time, and that time is always stolen by the capitalist. Reality shows a major counterexample, freeing up time allows for more diversified labor. If all were needed to produce the basic needs such as food, there would be no time to provide anything else. Research and the arts takes time and resources that can only be provided with the surplus value.
Marx chose a particular group to target rather than looking at the whole problem. The logic is internally very constant and conclusive, but externally needs more validation. That diminishes the impact of the research. Many implications have been proven to be very accurate, but the overall picture presented is only part of the whole story.
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Eugene_Kernes | 6 other reviews | Jun 4, 2024 |
Visão surpreendente do filósofo alemão em sua tese de doutorado. Aborda a diferença entre as filosofias de Demócrito e Epicuro, revelando uma faceta pouco conhecida. Essa defesa de Epicuro, permeada pela luta contra a repressão política, é precursora de sua crítica profunda à sociedade burguesa.
luizzmendes | Mar 16, 2024 |
A whole lot of the historical background of this long essay went over my head- I must admit that my knowledge of 19th century French politics isn’t exactly broad. I came to this book from a podcast called “The Age of Napoleon” which deals with the subject of this book’s much more famous and consequential uncle. One episode features a discussion of this work by Marx and mentions that it may be a little hard for contemporary readers to “get” because Marx was writing about current events, and assumed that his readers would be up to date on the latest news coming out of France. However, for us, this news has been watered down by an extra century and a half of intervening history.

Even coming in so ignorant, there’s a lot to be had from this book. Something I never hear mentioned is how fun Marx is to read. He was a extremely talented writer (or polemicist, depending on your perspective) with great skill for a turn of phrase or an biting piece of wit to draw into contrast the absurdity of the social phenomena he is describing. Its also refreshing to read a brilliant thinker speaking with such confidence and passion about these issues - when reading Marx you feel like the right answer is so clear, so unavoidable, only by deliberate misdirection have we missed the mark. This is partially 19th century intellectual hubris, but I think it does show how impotent modern political discourse has become. It’s still shocking how radical his opinions were, and how so long ago he was presciently able to diagnose many problems we are still struggling to understand today. When you actually read Marx, you realize how misconstrued he has become, and how different the contemporary “left” in the USA is from the agenda he is putting forward. Case in point is his criticisms of taxes towards the back of the essay, which runs totally counter to the depiction of “liberals” in mainstream American discourse as spendthrifts always ready to raise taxes on the hard working people. In this book Marx articulates much the same criticism of big government as an American style conservative might, albeit with a much different endgame in mind. What were these taxes for? What were they going towards supporting? Would they actually improve the status of the working class or only to fund further distractions and misdirections to make it seem like the government was actually doing something? (It is after all the ultimate goal of classic Marxism to dissolve the state after the means of production has been secured by the workers) Always basing his work in hardcore research and study (evinced by the thousands of hours spent researching Das Kapital in the libraries of London), Marx, despite his reputation as an ideologue, always seeks the no bullshit, practical path forward. In this book we see him rail against meaningless political grandstanding in the service of obfuscating revolutionary energy. What Louis Napoleon was able to do, and what sets him directly in Marx’s sights, was skillfully manipulate (or take advantage of) the political winds blowing after the stymied revolutions of 1848. By playing all sides against each other, and using the powers of office to put forward the most pandering political projects that would ultimately do nothing to improve the situation of the working class, Napoleon III was able to enrich himself, his cronies, and the entire bourgeois class that profited from “stability” at any cost.
… (more)
hdeanfreemanjr | 11 other reviews | Jan 29, 2024 |



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Associated Authors

Friedrich Engels Author, Editor, Introduction
Frederick Engels Editor, Preface, Contributor, , Author
Francis B. Randall Introduction
David Fernbach Translator, Editor
V. I. Lenin Contributor, Author
Martin Rowson Adapted by
Ro Marcenaro Illustrator
Red Viktor Illustrator
Vincent Galino Penciller
S. Ryazanskaya Editor, Translator
Lawrence Krader Editor, Introduction
Leon Trotsky Contributor, Editor, Introduction
Ben Fowkes Translator
Ernest Mandel Introduction, Contributor
Hal Draper Editor, Contributor
Howard Selsam Contributor
Paul Jackson Translator
Abraham Lincoln Contributor
Mao Tse-Tung Contributor
Slavoj iek Contributor
Wendy Lynne Lee Contributor
Hugh Griffith Introduction
Bert Andréas Contributor
Y. Wagner Contributor
Wal Suchting Contributor
Joe Bender Contributor
M. Strauss Contributor
Lucien Laurat Contributor
Bertram D. Wolfe Contributor
Haig A. Bosmajian Contributor
Karl Löwith Contributor
Max Adler Contributor
Takis Fotopoulos Contributor
Antonio Negri Contributor
Michael Hardt Contributor
Michael Harrington Contributor
Mihailo Marković Contributor
Eduard Bernstein Contributor
Mark Rahman Cover designer
Alan Woods Introduction
Iring Fetscher Editor, Afterword
Samuel Moore Translator
Erich Fromm Foreword
A. J. P. Taylor Introduction
Mark F. Smith Narrator
W. J. Rees Translator
Jean Bruhat Introduction
Killoffer Cover artist
Mikko Lahtinen Afterword
Marshall Berman Introduction
Georg Salter Cover designer
Edward Aveling Translator
Rodney Livingstone Translator, Appendix translator
I. Lipschits Translator
Quintin Hoare General editor
Eric Hobsbawm Introduction
Karl Korsch Introduction
Lucio Colletti Introduction, Editor
Jack Cohen Translator
Martin Nicolaus Translator
Gregor Benton Translator
T. B. Bottomore Translator
Edward Gorey Typographer
Sydney Butchkes Cover designer
Richard Dixon Translator
Clemens Dutt Translator
Reinhold Niebuhr Introduction
Eric Hobsbawm Introduction
Emile Burns Translator
Marcelo Backes Translator
Antonio Kehl Cover designer
Paulo Ferreira Leite Cover designer
Germano Facetti Cover designer
Renate Simpson Translator
I. B. Lasker Translator
Dagobert D. Runes Introduction
Martin Milligan Translator
Alex Miller Translator
Dirk J. Struik Translator
Barbara Ruhemann Translator
Emili Gasch Foreword
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