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Rudolf Otto (1869–1937)

Author of The Idea of the Holy

23+ Works 1,697 Members 13 Reviews 2 Favorited

About the Author

Aleksandr Ostrovsky was the nineteenth century's major playwright, due not only to the generally high quality of his plays but also to their large number (about 50). His work, primarily prose rather than verse, falls into two periods. The first, pre-1861, includes dramas that deal with an area of show more Russian life Ostrovsky knew quite intimately: the society of merchants and of lower government officials. His treatment of this social sphere was quite varied, for Ostrovsky was at times attracted to and at times disgusted by his characters' milieu, attitudes, and attributes. His masterpiece from this period is The Storm (1860), in which social themes provide the background and the motivation for a tragic love story. After 1861 Ostrovsky devoted himself in part to historical topics and to plots derived from folklore as, for example, in his masterpiece, The Snow Maiden (1873). Other plays deal with the gentry in the changed, post-emancipation Russia. Some are staples of the Russian theatrical repertoire. (Bowker Author Biography) show less

Includes the names: Rudolf Otto, Rudolph Otto, Рудольф Отто

Also includes: R. Otto (1)

Works by Rudolf Otto

The Idea of the Holy (1917) 1,452 copies, 9 reviews
Mysticism East and West (1957) 148 copies, 2 reviews
Naturalism and Religion (1907) 15 copies
Een wijze uit het westen 1 copy, 1 review

Associated Works

God (Hackett Readings in Philosophy) (1996) — Contributor, some editions — 60 copies
On Religion Speeches to its Cultured Despisers (1964) — Introduction, some editions — 1 copy


Common Knowledge



A basic work on the religious impulse in humanity
PendleHillLibrary | 8 other reviews | Apr 19, 2023 |
I enjoyed the unfolding of Jungian analysis, the concepts of holy terror and awe, and above all, the feeling of absolute sincerity. This wasn't a book of flowery nonsense, nor was it remotely a self-help book. I believe I'll be thinking about it for years down the line and appreciate a few of the nuances. We shall see.
bradleyhorner | 8 other reviews | Jun 1, 2020 |
Fear of the Shadow, the daemon, is the beginning of subjective religious experience according to Rudolf Otto in The Idea of the Holy. Our utterly deferential fright is encapsulated in that hoary Old Testament expression, “the Wrath of Yahweh.” (18) Otto calls it the numinous experience, when our “blood runs cold” and our “flesh creeps.” We recognize the sacred, the hallowed, the holy when it triggers an acute and overwhelming emotion, all out of proportion to the event – wonder, awe, astonishment, stupor, dread. “Here we have a terror fraught with an inward shuddering such as not even the most menacing and overpowering created thing can instill. It has something spectral in it.” (14) This is the encounter with the divine, that which is “wholly other” from the physical/rational self, that which is “wholly other” from what can be recognized or understood.

The ancients accepted the ineffable experience as a part of physical reality. They saw spirits in rocks and rivers. The hibernating beast came out of an uncanny place. Wild animals looked at people with the eyes of disguised gods. And the boldest of ancient people, as do bold people throughout time, sought to harness some small part of that ineffable power and energy. Magic was born – the effort “to appropriate the prodigious force of the numen for the natural ends of man.” (33)

complete posting at https://maryoverton.wikispaces.com/The+Magical+Groundhog+-+I
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1 vote
Mary_Overton | 8 other reviews | Apr 2, 2012 |
I decided to read The Idea of the Holy by Rudolf Otto when I saw that it was on C.S. Lewis' top-ten list of books that influenced him, reasoning that if it was good enough for Lewis, it was probably worth my time to read. All I can say after having read several of the list's books is that Lewis has strange tastes!

The Idea of the Holy is Otto's attempt to pick up where systematic theology leaves off. That is to say, while systematic theologies treat the rational aspects of God, The Idea discusses the non-rational divine aspects. How does one describe that which is by definition indescribable? Otto does so by using the via negativa (what it is not), metaphor (what it is like) and appeal to personal experiences in the believer's life, including one's a priori understanding of the holy. For Otto, the non-rational aspects of God, which he dubs "the numinous," can be explained (as best as one can) by the mysterium tremendum. Mysterium refers to the "wholly other" aspect of God--elements that differ in essence from everything that humans know and can describe. Tremendum refers to God's awefulness, His majesty, His overpoweringness, and all that causes humans when confronted with Him to experience what the Bible calls "the fear of the LORD." Taken together, we see that deep in God's nature there is something that we cannot ever fully understand, something which instills soul-shaking fear and respect, yet something for which we yearn, and indeed something which we as a race have felt from the beginning of history.

After discussing the concept--or feeling--of the mysterium tremendum and its means of expression in some detail, Otto turns to the expressions of the numinous in the Old and New Testaments and in Luther's works. The chapter "The Numinous in the New Testament" is especially worthwhile because of Otto's thoughts on the kingdom of God and predestination. He does an excellent job reaching past the "rational" mindset of the post-Enlightenment West and viewing those key theological concepts as part of God's supra-rational plan. Specifically concerning election, he writes

"The idea of 'election'…is an immediate and pure expression of the actual religious experience of grace. The recipient of divine grace feels and knows ever more and more surely, as he looks back on his past, that he has not grown into his present self through any achievement or effort of his own, and that, apart from his own will or power, grace was imparted to him, grasped him, impelled, and led him. And even the resolves and decisions that were most his own and most free become to him, without losing the element of freedom, something that he experienced rather than did." (p. 87)

Any true follower of Christ will at once recognize the truth of this statement--although it may defy rational analysis--because he or she has experienced it and knows it is true a priori.

Otto goes on to discuss how the idea or feeling of the numinous developed throughout humankind's history to become what it is today in "civilized" religions such as Christianity, and how its origins can still be seen in "primitive" tribal religions today. Here Otto writes under the assumption that religion evolved gradually from primitive humans, a theory also adopted by C.S. Lewis. As I find it hard to rationalize this view with my own interpretation of the early chapters of Genesis (namely, that Adam was a real man who had a close relationship with God, at least prior to the Fall), this part of the book remained fairly unhelpful to me. To one with a different interpretation of Gen 1-11, it may provide much more benefit.

Overall, this is a very difficult book to read. As Otto himself states in the forward, no one who has not mastered the rational aspects of God (i.e. systematic theology) should venture into the numinous. I could also add that to get the most out of this book, one should also have some familiarity with philosophy (and esp. early-1900s German philosophers and theologians such as Schleiermacher), biblical Greek, Latin and even some German, and be accustomed to the writing style of circa 1920. As someone with some but not all of this knowledge, the book was especially challenging for me. However, I did gain some valuable insights from it, and I plan to read it again at a later date. All in all, I felt the book was worth reading, but its appeal will ultimately be limited to a very specific audience.
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2 vote
jclemence | 8 other reviews | Dec 4, 2010 |



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