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Benedictus de Spinoza (1632–1677)

Author of The Ethics

Includes the names: Spinoza, B Spinoza, de Spinoza, スピノザ, B. de Spinoza, Spinoza/elwes, Baruj Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Espinosa ... (see complete list), Benedict Spinoza, Bento De Spinoza, Bento de Spinoza, Benedikt Spinoza, Benedykt Spinoza, Benedetto Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Bento De Espinosa, Benedikts Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Baruch de Espinosa, Benedictus Spinoza, Baruch de Espinosa, Baruch de Espinoza, Baruch de Espinosa, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedikt de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedicti de Spinoza, Benedicti De Spinoza, Benedicti de Spinoza, Benedictus de Spinosa, Benedictus De Spinoza, Benedict de] [Spinoza, Benedictus De Spinoza, Benedictus von Spinoza, Bénédicte de Spinoza, ברוך שפינוזה, R. H. W. (Spinoza) Elwes, Benedikt von von Spinoza, Benedictus Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Benedictus Spinoza, Spinoza; Joseph Ratner (Ed), Benedictus (Baruch) d Spinoza, Бенедикт Спиноза, James ed Benedict de) Gutmann Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza (Benedictus de Spinoza), James ed Gutmann Spinoza (Benedict de), intro-Joseph Ratner, Baruch de Spinoza, Benedictus De Spinoza (Benedict Spinoza), R H M (translator) De Benedict; Elwes Spinoza, R. H. M. (Translator); Benedict Spinoza Elwes, Benedictus De Spinoza Translated By Andrew Boyle, Joseph (editor B.; Ratner Spinoza, introduction), and Elwes Benedict Spinoza, R. H. M. (Translated, R. H. M. (translator) Benedict de; Elwes Spinoza, A. (translation); Santayana Baruch; Boyle Spinoza, Benedict De Spinoza; Translator R.H.M. Elwes; Intr, Benedictus De Spinoza; Translator And Introduction, Spinoza; translated by A. Boyle; introduction by G
Also includes: Espinosa (1)

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Baruch Spinoza was born in Amsterdam, the son of Portuguese Jewish refugees who had fled from the persecution of the Spanish Inquisition. Although reared in the Jewish community, he rebelled against its religious views and practices, and in 1656 was formally excommunicated from the Portuguese-Spanish Synagogue of Amsterdam and was thus effectively cast out of the Jewish world. He joined a group of nonconfessional Christians (although he never became a Christian), the Collegiants, who professed no creeds or practices but shared a spiritual brotherhood. He was also apparently involved with the Quaker mission in Amsterdam. Spinoza eventually settled in The Hague, where he lived quietly, studying philosophy, science, and theology, discussing his ideas with a small circle of independent thinkers, and earning his living as a lens grinder. He corresponded with some of the leading philosophers and scientists of his time and was visited by Leibniz and many others. He is said to have refused offers to teach at Heidelberg or to be court philosopher for the Prince of Conde. During his lifetime he published only two works, The Principles of Descartes' Philosophy (1666) and the Theological Political Tractatus (1670). In the first his own theory began to emerge as the consistent consequence of that of Descartes (see also Vol. 5). In the second, he gave his reasons for rejecting the claims of religious knowledge and elaborated his theory of the independence of the state from all religious factions. After his death (probably caused by consumption resulting from glass dust), his major work, the Ethics, appeared in his Opera Posthuma, and presented the full metaphysical basis of his pantheistic view. Spinoza's influence on the Enlightenment, on the Romantic Age, and on modern secularism has been tremendous. (Bowker Author Biography)
— biography from The Ethics
… (more)
The Ethics 2,536 copies, 32 reviews
Theological-Political Treatise 886 copies, 10 reviews
Political Treatise 107 copies, 3 reviews
Spinoza Selections 96 copies, 1 review
Briefwisseling 89 copies, 2 reviews
Chief works 47 copies
Spinoza 15 copies
De uitgelezen Spinoza 13 copies, 1 review
Spinoza 11 copies
The Book of God 10 copies
Obras completas 7 copies, 2 reviews
Staatkundige verhandeling 4 copies, 1 review
Éthique 3 copies
Spinoza 2 copies
Pisma wczesne 2 copies
Antología 2 copies, 1 review
Spinoza 2 copies
Traktaty 2 copies
Dio 2 copies
איגרות 2 copies
Etika 1 copy, 1 review
Tom. 1-2 1 copy
Tom. 3-4 1 copy
Ethic 1 copy
Spinoza 1 copy
Spinoza 1 copy
Spinoza 1 copy

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Short biography
Baruch Spinoza was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to a Sephardic Jewish family whose recent ancestors had been expelled from or fled Spain and Portugal. He received a thorough education, including the study of medieval philosophy as well as the works of Descartes, Hobbes, and other contemporaries. He became a key philosopher and writer laying the groundwork for the Enlightenment, though the importance of his work was not fully realized until many years after his death.
Based on his radical views, the Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam banned him from their society at age 23. Around this time, he adopted the Latin form of his name, Benedictus de Spinoza. He made a living grinding optical lenses, and continued his scholarly writing. He died in 1677 at age 44, allegedly of a lung illness, perhaps caused by the dust inhaled during his work. Of his writings, only A Treatise on Religious and Political Philosophy (1670) was published during his lifetime. His books Ethics, Political Treatise, and Hebrew Grammar appeared posthumously in 1677.
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