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Benedictus de Spinoza (1632–1677)

Author of The Ethics

Includes the names: Spinoza, B Spinoza, de Spinoza, スピノザ, B. de Spinoza, Spinoza/elwes, Baruj Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Espinosa ... (see complete list), Benedict Spinoza, Bento De Spinoza, Bento de Spinoza, Benedikt Spinoza, Benedykt Spinoza, Benedetto Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Bento De Espinosa, Benedikts Spinoza, Baruch de Spinoza, Baruch de Espinosa, Benedictus Spinoza, Baruch de Espinosa, Baruch de Espinoza, Baruch de Espinosa, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedikt de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedict de Spinoza, Benedicti de Spinoza, Benedicti De Spinoza, Benedicti de Spinoza, Benedictus de Spinosa, Benedictus De Spinoza, Benedict de] [Spinoza, Benedictus De Spinoza, Benedictus von Spinoza, Bénédicte de Spinoza, ברוך שפינוזה, R. H. W. (Spinoza) Elwes, Benedikt von von Spinoza, Benedictus Baruch Spinoza, Baruch Benedictus Spinoza, Spinoza; Joseph Ratner (Ed), Benedictus (Baruch) d Spinoza, Бенедикт Спиноза, James ed Benedict de) Gutmann Spinoza, Baruch Spinoza (Benedictus de Spinoza), James ed Gutmann Spinoza (Benedict de), intro-Joseph Ratner, Baruch de Spinoza, Benedictus De Spinoza (Benedict Spinoza), R H M (translator) De Benedict; Elwes Spinoza, R. H. M. (Translator); Benedict Spinoza Elwes, Benedictus De Spinoza Translated By Andrew Boyle, Joseph (editor B.; Ratner Spinoza, introduction), and Elwes Benedict Spinoza, R. H. M. (Translated, R. H. M. (translator) Benedict de; Elwes Spinoza, A. (translation); Santayana Baruch; Boyle Spinoza, Benedict De Spinoza; Translator R.H.M. Elwes; Intr, Benedictus De Spinoza; Translator And Introduction, Spinoza; translated by A. Boyle; introduction by G
Also includes: Espinosa (1)

MembersReviewsPopularityRatingFavorited   Events   
6,546 (7,708)813,040 (4.01)560
The Ethics 2,310 copies, 29 reviews
Theological-Political Treatise 817 copies, 10 reviews
Spinoza Selections 93 copies, 1 review
Political Treatise 92 copies, 3 reviews
Briefwisseling 84 copies, 2 reviews
Chief works 44 copies
De uitgelezen Spinoza 12 copies, 1 review
Spinoza 12 copies
Spinoza 11 copies
Obras completas 6 copies, 2 reviews
Staatkundige verhandeling 4 copies, 1 review
Spinoza 2 copies
Antología 2 copies, 1 review
Dio 2 copies
Traktaty 2 copies
Spinoza 2 copies
איגרות 2 copies
Tom. 3-4 1 copy
Tom. 1-2 1 copy
[No title] 1 copy
Spinoza 1 copy
Spinoza 1 copy
Spinoza 1 copy

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Short biography
Baruch Spinoza was born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to a Sephardic Jewish family whose recent ancestors had been expelled from or fled Spain and Portugal. He received a thorough education, including the study of medieval philosophy as well as the works of Descartes, Hobbes, and other contemporaries. He became a key philosopher and writer laying the groundwork for the Enlightenment, though the importance of his work was not fully realized until many years after his death.
Based on his radical views, the Jewish religious authorities in Amsterdam banned him from their society at age 23. Around this time, he adopted the Latin form of his name, Benedictus de Spinoza. He made a living grinding optical lenses, and continued his scholarly writing. He died in 1677 at age 44, allegedly of a lung illness, perhaps caused by the dust inhaled during his work. Of his writings, only A Treatise on Religious and Political Philosophy (1670) was published during his lifetime. His books Ethics, Political Treatise, and Hebrew Grammar appeared posthumously in 1677.
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