In 1933, Rabbi Steinberg became the rabbi of the Park Avenue Synagogue in New York City. His preaching and his writings made him a highly sought-after lecturer on modern Jewish life and thought. His first book, "The Making of the Modern Jew," was published in 1934. In December 1943, while on a speaking tour of army camps for the Jewish Welfare Board, he suffered a near-fatal heart attack. When he died suddenly in 1950 at age 46, he was working on his last book, "The Prophet's Wife," which was finally published in 2010.