Alexander Jannaeus (died 76 B.C.E.): High Priest and ruler of the Jews. The third son of John Hyrcanus I, he assumed his titles when his older brother Aristobulus I died. His birth name was probably Jonathan; the name "Alexander Jannaeus" is a hellenization of that name. Most of what we know about him comes from Josephus, who depicts him as a cruel man with a strong lust for power but limited competence. There are hints, however, that the Qumran sectaries approved of him. He at least held Judea together; after his death, things came apart very quicklu.