Barbara Palmer (1641-1709) was a famously extravagant and promiscuous lover of King Charles II of England. Born Barbara Villiers, she married Roger Palmer, and soon afterwards met the young king while he was in exile. She returned to London with him on his Restoration. The king created Barbara's husband Earl of Castlemaine (she is often known as Lady Castlemaine). Later he made her Duchess of Cleveland in her own right.