Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox (21 September 1516 – 4 September 1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. He was the son of John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox. He married Margaret Douglas, daughter of Margaret, Dowager Queen of Scotland and niece to Henry VIII of England. Their son, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, married Mary, Queen of Scots. His grandson was James VI of Scotland.