1) In M. Louisa Lockes' Victorian San Francisco Mysteries, Mr. Wong is an immigrant Chinese who worked as a cook for the Voss family. His father was a Hakka and his mother a Punti. He was adopted by his mother's family, the Wongs, after being orphaned. Arriving relatively early in America, at Mr. Voss' urging, Wong was able to become a citizen before that was outlawed for non-native born Chinese. He is consequently able to own property, and has purchase his own home and has a housekeeper, while waiting to retire from the Vosses.