The Church of England was arguably the most important institution in England from the Reformation to the end of the Long Eighteenth Century. It was the first graduate profession, recruiting half of Oxford and Cambridge's graduates in the 18th century (and probably the more able half too). It had a presence in each of England's approximately 10,000 parishes. Its Bishops attended, spoke and voted in the House of Lords. It constituted (and still does) the Established Church of England. The contribution of its clergy and their offspring made a massive contribution to English literature and culture.