Introduction The Concise Guide to the Kings, Queens Regnant, Emperors and Tsars of Europe lists all the significant monarchs who reigned in Europe in the last thousand years. Forty-three kingdoms are examned, 688 monarchs separately identified and dated with, in most cases, biographical information. Such kings as are not included are non-starters, imposters, pretenders and over 400 minor kings in Ireland, who ruled in addition to the all-powerful ones shown.
Albania A Roman province for many years, Albania was subsequently administered by Normans, Serbians and Bulgarians. It then enjoyed a brief spell of autonomy before being submerged by the all-conquering Turks. The Ottoman power reigned for nearly 500 years, until the Balkan War. In 1912 Albania was declared a principality, but this proved unsuccessful and a republic was formed in 1925, a kingdom in 1928 and then, it took nearly eighteen months before a communist republic came into being in January 1946.