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James Madison: A Life Reconsidered by Lynne…
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James Madison: A Life Reconsidered (2014)

by Lynne Cheney

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I greatly enjoyed "James Madison." His role as the "Father of the Constitution" cannot be understated. And while he led us through the War of 1812, it was his earlier efforts during our founding that I enjoyed learning about most.

For those of you who might be inclined to skip this book based on the writer's husband (former VP Dick Cheney), you'd be doing yourselves a great disservice. This is an exhaustively researched, thorough, and well written biography. ( )
  Jarratt | Mar 4, 2017 |
This was a surprisingly good book. Cheney wrote a page turner, as a matter of fact, that is, until the end. More about the end later.

Cheney places Madison in his time, from his college days, through the political background of the Revolutionary War, the Constitutional Congresses, and three Presidents (Washington, Jefferson, and his own).

In writing of the two political parties, she was definitely in the Republican camp, though she makes a point of saying those early Republicans were not from the 19th c. Republican Party. In any case, I certainly believed what Madison had to say (through Cheney's pen!) about the Federalists.

I found the biography entertaining and a page-turner (as I said previously) until I got to the war of 1812. It could have been my aversion to war in general, but I found the catalogue of events boring. And after Madison's tenure was over, it really dragged. Was Cheney tired of the subject? Was her deadline looming? So, in effect, I award the first 3/4 five stars, the last part 1 star for facts, and the pictures at the end another star. 3.5 ( )
  kaulsu | Mar 15, 2016 |
Cheney’s biography is a thorough and very well-written but ideologically driven account of James Madison’s life and especially his influence on the Constitution. She writes:

"By the time of the Philadelphia convention, Madison was the political equivalent of Mozart in the late 1770s, who after years of writing music was about to create his greatest works. He was Einstein, who after years of studying with ‘holy zeal’ was on the verge of his annus mirabilis, the miracle year of 1905, in which he would establish the basis of the theory of relativity and quantum physics.”

This paragraph is a good example of one of the main problems I had with this book. The hyperbole about Madison is way over the top. While Cheney occasionally mentions at least some of the intellectual contributions of other Enlightenment thinkers in the 1700s (all of whom influenced both Jefferson and Madison) including Locke, Montesquieu, Hume, Kant, Rousseau, and Voltaire, basically Madison is to Cheney an original thinker showing a rare genius with few equals in history. She never even mentions the large impact made by the American, Roger Williams, with his seminal 1644 treatise about the freedom of religion, which inspired the Enlightenment figures (particularly John Locke) who then in turn influenced the Americans of the next Century.

Furthermore, she downplays the huge role of Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist Papers, which is absurd considering that he produced most of the essays. Rather, Cheney contends, it was Madison who was the chief architect and primary interpreter of the Constitution, and “more than any other individual . . . responsible for creating the United States of America in the form we know it today.” Most historians would list Jefferson, Hamilton, and even George Washington in that capacity before they would throw Madison’s name into that hat. [Hamilton's Reports on the Treasury were also voluminous, brilliant, and consequential for the evolving shape of the country.]

Another complaint I have is Cheney’s depiction of the issues that fired the quest for independence. She mentions the imposition of taxes, for example, but completely omits how many objections to them were related to the fact that they would cut into the profits of successful smugglers, like John Hancock. She also never mentions the anger the colonists felt over the British having the nerve to enforce treaties they made with the Native Americans, rather than just allowing the colonists to take over all that rich land. Similarly, she takes no note of the role George Washington played in actually starting the French and Indian War, only observing that he had a reputation for great courage in that conflict. In other words, like other conservative historians, she is eager to cast the early Americans in the best light, leaving out evidence of their greed, hypocrisy, and other instances of bad behavior.

Speaking of bad behavior, Cheney, in enumerating all that Madison had in common with his BFF Jefferson, avers:

"They both hated slavery, upon which Virginia’s culture and commerce were built. They understood the contradiction between the liberty they sought for mankind and the servitude they witnessed daily, yet at the end of long lives they would both die owning slaves.”

What she elides over here is that they didn’t just “witness” servitude, they actively participated in it, particularly Jefferson. Jefferson not only pursued slaves who ran away, but had his overseer whip the young male slaves when they didn’t work hard and long enough. Moreover, neither freed their slaves upon their deaths, even, in Jefferson’s case, in spite of promising at least to free the offspring of his mistress, Sally Hemings. (Madison did in fact have a legal problem with dower slaves, so that he wasn’t entirely able to free all of them upon his death even if he so desired. Jefferson, who had no living spouse, did not have that excuse.)

But the meat of the book is a very exhaustive account of Madison’s political life. Cheney provides a lot of minutiae, and quotes extensively from Madison’s papers. Even Dolley, as delightful as she was by all accounts, doesn’t get much coverage in this book. While this makes the book a welcome resource for scholars, it makes it a little too dense for leisurely history reading.

Discussion: Some critics have argued that the agenda of the book is to establish Madison’s supremacy as a Constitutional “Founding Father.” This would definitely be of assistance to the right wing of the current Supreme Court because of Madison’s advocacy of strict construction and states’ rights. Madison did in fact write in Federalist No. 45, “The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government, are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite.”

But Madison, like Jefferson, discovered that once he held the office of President, he regarded the power split quite differently. In fact, he was driven to claim that the very idea that he once supported state nullification was totally wrong. (He seems to have forgotten that he actually authored the Virginia Resolution of 1798. Cheney contends it was Jefferson who inserted the words “null, void, and of no force or effect” into Madison’s draft, but that Madison was too loyal to his friend to point that out.) She also records Madison’s outrage on Jefferson’s behalf when Jefferson’s private letters were disclosed revealing his own lack of hesitation to wield executive power when he thought circumstances called for it. Madison huffed that private communications should remain private.

Cheney also downplays Madison’s darker side. Just to take one example, consider Madison’s authorship of the so-called Helvidius essays. Jefferson often used Madison to do his dirty work. In this instance, in 1793, he wanted Madison to attack Hamilton:

"For God’s sake, my dear Sir, take up your pen, select the most striking heresies, and cut him to pieces in the face of the public.”

Usually, Madison was a willing patsy for Jefferson, although this time, he was not eager to do it for a variety of reasons, some of which had to do with his health and other commitments. In any event, Cheney merely notes that Madison argued “the nuances of legislative versus executive power” and other such academic issues. Ron Chernow, in his biography of Hamilton, provides specific quotes from the essays to show that Madison (anonymously of course) showed little reticence in print, revealing a great deal of animosity as he “flayed Hamilton as a monarchist ….”

Evaluation: Cheney is very polished as a writer, and very detailed (at least when it suits her agenda) as an historian. In most respects, this biography provides a thorough, if a bit white-washed and exaggerated account of Madison’s participation in, and importance to, the founding of the American Republic. ( )
  nbmars | Sep 22, 2014 |
This is the first biography of James Madison that I have read so I have no way of knowing if Lynne Cheney has added anything new to the field. She did do a tremendous amount of research and her knowledge of politics in early America is demonstrated in this book. I may be alone in this, but I really had a hard time getting through this at times. It felt very dry in a way that I can’t quite put my finger on, but there were times that I really had to talk myself into finishing. Overall though, I did learn a lot about James Madison’s role in the formation of government and his relationship with other luminaries of the time so ultimately I am glad that I stuck with this presidential biography. I received this book from NetGalley in exchange for an honest review. ( )
  LissaJ | Aug 22, 2014 |
As far as I can tell (this being the only biography of Madison I've read), the main part of his life that is being reconsidered here is his health. Madison has apparently usually been described as having "delicate" health. Cheney argues that overall, Madison was quite hale and hearty, but that his health difficulties can be ascribed to periodic epileptic symptoms, which would not have been something that anyone would really be talking about due to the belief that epilepsy was the result of demonic possession. In that case, it's remarkable that he was able to ascend to the heights of influence he did while merely being thought to be frail.

Madison was not quite as private a person as Thomas Jefferson was, but close to it. Like Jefferson and Washington before him, much of his personal correspondence was burned near the end of his life or shortly thereafter. In the letters that remained, Madison didn't hesitate to redact or change things that he thought might be hurtful to others. In a lot of ways, this sort of consideration illuminates his character. He seems to have cared deeply about those close to him, even to the point of, near the end of his life, potentially damaging his own reputation in order to protect that of the deceased Thomas Jefferson.

Madison was known by strangers to be reticent to the point of standoffishness, but once he was comfortable, people found him witty and warm. He seems to have had an even temper, able to balance out the more expressive Jefferson, and so they worked well together. What they had in common, though, was an ability to nearly disappear outside of public life. This makes Madison a difficult biography subject, since we only seem to catch glimpses of his personality through mentions in other people's letters.

The book is a reasonably quick read, and avoids drawing too many far-flung conclusions. Speculation about what he might have read or thought or been exposed to is stated as such and limited to things like what ideas he may have discovered through books in his father's library, or what medicines ordered by his mother might have been given to him. ( )
  ursula | Jul 7, 2014 |
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To my grandchildren - Kate, Elizabeth, Grace, Philip, Richard, Sam, and Sarah Lynne
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(Prologue) Philadelphia, May 5, 1787. He hurried along Market Street, his high-crowned hat offering scant protection against the rain.
James Madison, one of the great lawgivers of the world, descended from generations of people who drew their living from the land.
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Amazon.com Product Description (ISBN 0670025194, Hardcover)

A major new biography of the fourth president of the United States by New York Times bestselling author Lynne Cheney
 
This majestic new biography of James Madison explores the astonishing story of a man of vaunted modesty who audaciously changed the world. Among the Founding Fathers, Madison was a true genius of the early republic.
 
Outwardly reserved, Madison was the intellectual driving force behind the Constitution and crucial to its ratification. His visionary political philosophy and rationale for the union of states—so eloquently presented in The Federalist papers—helped shape the country Americans live in today.
 
Along with Thomas Jefferson, Madison would found the first political party in the country’s history—the Democratic Republicans. As Jefferson’s secretary of state, he managed the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the United States. As president, Madison led the country in its first war under the Constitution, the War of 1812. Without precedent to guide him, he would demonstrate that a republic could defend its honor and independence—and remain a republic still.

(retrieved from Amazon Thu, 12 Mar 2015 18:08:17 -0400)

"This majestic new biography of James Madison explores the astonishing story of a man of vaunted modesty who audaciously changed the world. Among the Founding Fathers, Madison was a true genius of the early republic. Outwardly reserved, Madison was the intellectual driving force behind the Constitution and crucial to its ratification. His visionary political philosophy and rationale for the union of states--so eloquently presented in The Federalist papers--helped shape the country Americans live in today. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Madison would found the first political party in the country's history--the Democratic Republicans. As Jefferson's secretary of state, he managed the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the United States. As president, Madison led the country in its first war under the Constitution, the War of 1812. Without precedent to guide him, he would demonstrate that a republic could defend its honor and independence--and remain a republic still"--… (more)

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