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Philosophical Investigations (1953)

by Ludwig Wittgenstein

Other authors: See the other authors section.

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Incorporating significant editorial changes from earlier editions,the fourth edition of Ludwig Wittgenstein's PhilosophicalInvestigations is the definitive en face German-Englishversion of the most important work of 20th-century philosophy The extensively revised English translation incorporates manyhundreds of changes to Anscombe?s original translation Footnoted remarks in the earlier editions have now beenrelocated in the text What was previously referred to as ?Part 2? is nowrepublished as Philosophy of Psychology ? A Fragment,and all the remarks in it are numbered for ease of reference New detailed editorial endnotes explain decisions oftranslators and identify references and allusions in Wittgenstein'soriginal text Now features new essays on the history of the PhilosophicalInvestigations, and the problems of translatingWittgenstein?s text… (more)
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» See also 26 mentions

English (13)  Spanish (2)  Catalan (1)  All languages (16)
Showing 1-5 of 13 (next | show all)
With Wittgenstein there is a concern with the actual use of language – what is the problem and how we can illuminate/imagine a method for going forward. It is among other things a process. Observation precedes explanation and may yield only a description of the reality of a particular situation. (109) That means we should try to understand that Wittgenstein's own philosophical activity is like bringing words back to regular use (out/above/below the realm of “metaphysics”).

What is the process of trying to understand what it means to know something? Is there any conflict within a language game? There may be infinite variations in our everyday experiences; if so, how can we reach a resolution or should we seek that as a useful goal?

We should consider the use of comparison and noticing similarities. Sometimes that may bring insight. However the text often provides an invitation to enter into a dialog about the meaning of life and how one might understand the proper end of one's life. (language and dialog)

I am reminded of “the search” --- “What is the nature of the search . . . The search is what anyone would undertake if he were not sunk in the everydayness of his own life.” - Walker Percy

That is we are not looking for philosophical statements but the reality of what is here in everyday language. One wonders if this is a method for escaping the “everydayness” of life and the seeming incongruity of such a process? (117) One key for escaping the everydayness of life is recognizing the situation of a “fish out of water” and thinking in a way that you may become just that.

Our imagination may be a tool that allows recognition of just such a situation. (129) I personally am intrigued by the effect on my imagination of listening to music – different effects result from different types of music (Liszt or Ligeti). Whatever the means you may choose it is important to realize that language can do many things if we only look at the way we use words. We should aim to see clearly if possible. (Observation) ( )
  jwhenderson | Jun 22, 2021 |
What relationship do our words have to our thoughts? To the world around us? How can we tell what a word means? Wittgenstein sees them as having meaning based on their use in our 'language-games,' and that we invent problems by misunderstand how we use the words we do. ( )
  poirotketchup | Mar 18, 2021 |
NA
  pszolovits | Feb 3, 2021 |
I'll be honest, I just don't understand what the author wants to convince me of, if anything. ( )
  Paul_S | Dec 23, 2020 |
: the English text of the third edition
  LanternLibrary | Oct 30, 2017 |
Showing 1-5 of 13 (next | show all)
Ludwig Wittgensteins Filosofiske undersøkelser er et av de mest banebrytende filosofiske verk fra det tjuende århundre. Hans bidrag til den analytiske og lingvistiske filosofien er uten sidestykke. Man tar neppe munnen for full ved å påstå at nærmest all moderne filosofi forholder seg til Wittgensteins arbeider - selv om ikke alle er seg påvirkningen like bevisst. Denne litterær-filosofiske perlen vil garantert få leseren til å se på språkets sammenheng med nye øyne.

"Filosofiens resultater består i avsløringen av et og annet eksempel på regulær nonsens og av de kulene som forstanden har skaffet seg ved å renne hodet mot språkets grense. På kulene kan vi avlese avsløringens verdi."
Fra Filosofiske undersøkelser

Filosofiske undersøkelser ble utgitt posthumt i 1953, og består hovedsakelig av tekster Wittgenstein skrev i perioden 1936-49. Tekstene representerer et radikalt brudd med hans tidlige verk, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, både på stil- og innholdsplanet. Mens han i Tractatus var ute etter å bevise, er han nå opptatt av å beskrive.
Gjennom en rekke løsrevne tekstbrokker bruker Wittgenstein metaforer og analogier i sitt forsøk på å vise hvordan språket virker i praksis. Disse undersøkelsene gir den filosofiske teksten et særegent, underlig og fremfor alt litterært preg. Derfor skiller verket seg også ut fra mer typiske filosofiske verker, som ofte rommer mye dogmatisme mellom permene. Filosofi, hevder Wittgenstein, er ikke annet enn et forsøk på å løse problemer som oppstår som et resultat av ordenes uklare mening. Nøkkelen til å løse disse problemene ligger i språkanalysen, og i en riktig bruk av språket. Wittgenstein lanserer begrepene "språkspill" og "regelfølging" for å beskrive noen av de tankemønstrene han forfekter i Filosofiske undersøkelser. "Et ords mening er dets anvendelse i språkspillet", er en setning som konkretiserer Wittgensteins filosofi.

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (1889-1951) var en karismatisk og gåtefull person, og han er like myteomspunnet i dag som han var da han levde. Han ble født inn i en stor og holden familie i Wien som den yngste av åtte søsken, og fikk en kulturelt stimulerende oppvekst. Wittgenstein studerte først mekanikk i Berlin, noe som førte til en interesse for matematikk, og siden filosofi. Matematikeren og filosofen Gottlob Frege anbefalte den unge Wittgenstein å studere i Cambridge, hvor Bertrand Russell foreleste. Etter hvert konsentrerte han seg om logikk, og i 1922 ble det første av hans to hovedverk publisert med hjelp fra Russell; nemlig Tractatus.

Etter utgivelsen bestemte Wittgenstein seg for ikke å beskjeftige seg mer med filosofi. Han reiste tilbake til Østerrike, hvor han ble lærer i grunnskolen. I 1929 dro han imidlertid tilbake til Cambridge for å forelese ved Trinity College, og for å gjenoppta sitt virke som filosof. Der var han professor i filosofi fra 1939 til 1947, da han trakk seg fra stillingen for å konsentrere seg om å skrive. Innen 1949 hadde han skrevet det som senere ble til Filosofiske undersøkelser, hans andre hovedverk. De siste to årene av sitt liv tilbrakte han i henholdsvis Wien, Oxford og Cambridge, hvor han fortsatte å skrive inntil han døde av prostatakreft i 1951.
 

» Add other authors (53 possible)

Author nameRoleType of authorWork?Status
Wittgenstein, Ludwigprimary authorall editionsconfirmed
Anscombe, G. E. M.Translatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Blumbergs, IlmārsCover designersecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Nyman, HeikkiTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Pechar, JiříTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Taurens, JānisTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
Vējš, Jānis NameisisTranslatorsecondary authorsome editionsconfirmed
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Epigraph
Überhaupt hat der Fortschritt das an sich, daß er viel größer ausschaut, als er wirklich ist.

NESTROY
The trouble about progress is that it always looks much greater than it really is.

Nestroy
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1. Agustin, en las Confesiones (1.8): «Cuando ellos (los mayores) nombraban alguna cosa y consecuentemente con esa apelación se movían hacia algo, lo veía y comprendía que con los sonidos que pronunciaban llamaban ellos a aquella cosa cuando pretendían señalarla. Pues lo que ellos pretendían se entresacaba de su movimiento corporal: cual lenguaje natural de todos los pueblos quec con mímica y juegos de ojos, con el movimiento del resto de los miembros y con el sonido de la voz hacen indicación de las afecciones del alma al apetecer, tener, rechazar o evitar cosas. Así, oyendo repetidamente las palabras colocadas en sus lugares apropiados en diferentes oraciones, colegía paulatinamente de qué cosas eran signos y, una vez adiestrada la lengua en esos signios, expresabaya con ellos mis deseos.»
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What is your aim in philosophy?—To shew the fly the way out of the fly-bottle.
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Incorporating significant editorial changes from earlier editions,the fourth edition of Ludwig Wittgenstein's PhilosophicalInvestigations is the definitive en face German-Englishversion of the most important work of 20th-century philosophy The extensively revised English translation incorporates manyhundreds of changes to Anscombe?s original translation Footnoted remarks in the earlier editions have now beenrelocated in the text What was previously referred to as ?Part 2? is nowrepublished as Philosophy of Psychology ? A Fragment,and all the remarks in it are numbered for ease of reference New detailed editorial endnotes explain decisions oftranslators and identify references and allusions in Wittgenstein'soriginal text Now features new essays on the history of the PhilosophicalInvestigations, and the problems of translatingWittgenstein?s text

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