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About the Author

Howard Gardner is Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education and Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Harvard University; Adjunct Professor of Neurology at the Boston University School of Medicine; and Codirector of Harvard Project Zero. He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts. (Bowker Author Biography)

Works by Howard Gardner

Five Minds for the Future (2007) 563 copies
Good Work: When Excellence and Ethics Meet (2001) — Author — 206 copies
Shattered Mind (1975) 65 copies
To Open Minds (1989) 63 copies
Artful Scribbles (1980) 62 copies
Una mente sintetica (2022) 1 copy
Prkning (2006) 1 copy
Echoes in My Mind (1981) 1 copy

Associated Works

MindScience: An East-West Dialogue (1991) — Contributor — 115 copies
Cerebrum 2010: Emerging Ideas in Brain Science (2010) — Contributor — 16 copies
Creativity and Development (2003) — Contributor — 16 copies
Teaching for Intelligence (1999) — Contributor — 11 copies
Happy Together: New York & The Other World (2007) — Contributor — 5 copies


Common Knowledge



Linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, personal intelligences encompasses Howard Gardner’s list of Multiple Intelligences. No list will be conclusive as any list would depend on the type of analysis or goal which differ based on the investigators of intelligence. To qualify as an intelligence, the competence needs to have a set of problem solving skills, have the potential for growth of those skills, be localized in the brain, and be found in multiple cultures.

The intelligences can be characterized as tacit knowledge of implementation rather than prepositional knowledge of procedures. An intelligence is not a raw computational capacity, it can only be applied to the extent the individual can interact with aspects of the environment that give meaning to the intelligence. The more intelligences strengths an individual has, the more possibilities are opened. A common theme of the intelligences seems to be the importance of memory.

Intelligences appear based on domains. Certain types of domains are universal were the species needs to confront to handle the physical and social environment. Cultural domains are limited to certain regions as they are not essential for survival but enable certain social progress to made. Unique domains are limited to few individuals who have the skills enabling them to make progress in the domain, with the potential of making the unique domain accessible to others. Creativity depends on internal competence and values, available sources of study, and judgements within the field.

Each chapter shows the expression of the particular intelligence, childhood development of the intelligence, and the brain area associated with the particular intelligence. Evidence shows that the different intelligences are processed differently and can be impaired by a specific lesion. Localization of the brain for the particular intelligence occurs in different areas for different individuals.

Although the mind can handle different kinds of content, the capabilities within a content is not representative of the capabilities with other contents. As such, the author repudiates IQ tests as the tests are not testing what they claim they are testing. IQ tests are good for predicting school performance as those subjects are on the tests, but the tests miss every other forms of intelligence. IQ tests have a very limited view of what makes up intelligence and consider that there is only a single general intelligence.

The problem with this theory is the localization of the brain. Gardner mentions that all the intelligences have some interactions with the other types which cannot be explained if they are mutually independent as per the localization. Gardner dismissed many forms of intelligence as they cannot be localized, but when a lesion in the brain is found and the person still has the particular intelligence, Gardner defends the intelligence. Gardner states that the brain region can be different per individual which would go against the localization of the brain. As skills and what is admired as an intelligence is subject to change based on the time and culture of the person, if stuck to localization, it would create a host of implications which are inconsistent with localization such as inactivity in the brain or graduality of brain parts. It is more consistent to see that each person has different capabilities with some being outstanding to be called intelligent relative to peers.

Gardner expresses intelligence tests are only helpful for predicting school performance but fail at expressing other types of intelligences. The intelligences Gardner finds most salient are each provided a chapter and are given to extensive review of what it entails. Each shows a sample of people who excel at a particular type of intelligence. The focus appears to be on children as many children who show an inclination to a particular intelligence grow up to utilize it with renown. Due to the localization, it would appear that adults cannot obtain those intelligences as the particular brain region is relatively underdeveloped.
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Eugene_Kernes | 5 other reviews | Jun 4, 2024 |
I didn't really find the conclusion convincing, and thought the inclusion of Martha Graham and Ghandi was less than helpful. Ghandi doesn't seem to fit into the narrative as well as the first 3 cases, and Graham's section was awkward since her work could not really be well described in print. Her chapter seemed underdeveloped as a result. I also had issues with the gender aspect of these cases, though Gardner does try to address gender. I wished that this set of cases had included someone along the lines of Andre Norton or Agatha Christie, women whose work could have been more easily discussed in print. Still, this was an interesting read, and offers some insight on creativity, even if I would have designed the project a little differently.… (more)
JBarringer | 3 other reviews | Dec 15, 2023 |
I first heard about Gardner's book while reading another book. Gardner was often quoted in the book Writing as a Way of Healing: How Telling Our Stories Transforms Our Lives (0046442072434)by Louise Desalvo. Because of her references I found myself excited about ordering Creating Minds as the next read.

Gardner's book is an important book as he looks at the lives of seven great creators within the Modern Period and their similarities and differences. It is however a very different approach from Desalvo's book. At first I was disappointed because I expected writing more in the vein of Desalvo's. Gardner's approach was analytical rather than writing to encourage personal exploration. Once getting past that (and understanding Gardner's focus on the theory of Multiple Intelligences) I could appreciate it from an educator's point of view.

His summaries of the creators Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi was phenomenal. While I understand his premise, I'm not sure I agree with his conclusions. Perhaps this was because my original hope was to use the book to inspire my own creative mind. As a reader who is 50 years of age, his conclusions came across rather discouraging since he focuses on successful creators making contributions in their twenties.
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JRobinW | 3 other reviews | Jan 20, 2023 |
(213) Gardner and Davis, both highly-respected researchers, begin a compelling argument that today's students are looking for an "app"-geared approach to life: a search for the easiest way to get things done. "Appification" can help students harness creative and intellectual powers, but it can also push students into a mindset that only the path with the least friction and highest efficiency matters, an "end justifies the mean" approach that means students may be looking more for the grade and less for the experience, for example. Building on their own experiences as well as those of Davis's sister (a tri-generational approach), their core argument is powerful. The book alludes to their extensive research, but, perhaps in an effort to create a book that is more "readable" than academic, does not delve deeply into it. The authors know so much about this topic that I am looking forward to further insights as they drill down deeper in future works.

First came the telephone, then the television, then the Internet, and now the app. Apps are designed to make a task simpler, a search faster, or a day timelier. But what happens when apps pervade a society? At what level to automated programs change the people using them? Young people today between the ages of 15 and 25 have a hard time recalling a world without electronic devices, without smartphones, or without the Internet. Howard Gardner and Katie Davis, in The App Generation, tackle the subject and along the way, learn about the fundamental social and moral landscape of a generation raised in the digital age.

Gardner and Davis focus their attention on what they call the three I’s: identity, intimacy, and imagination. In the digital world, identity is fully customizable and can be carefully constructed by what the user posts in online forums and image galleries. Intimacy is gauged by how users interact or nurture their social connections online. Lastly, imagination is just that, but it is also measured by how different relationships and creations are viewed online. Their research integrates psychological, sociological, and philosophical studies to get at just how apps are interacting with individuals and even society as a whole. Many different angles are taken in their investigation, including focus groups and online messages.

For the most past, the authors get at what they are looking for: a better picture of how the current generation views the world through apps and what that means for the future of society. There a few times when a one-off comment is seen as an indicator for a whole group, but the discussion of the “app attitude” is fun and pertinent. While I was drawn more to the comments from individual Internet content creators, the dual fields of computer science and psychology definitely keep this book in the academics’ arena. It reads fairly quickly and has a good amount of statistics about today’s app users. An interesting but not outstanding book.
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JosieRobins | 4 other reviews | Dec 4, 2020 |



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